. The monsoon season, from July to September, is a period of heavy rainfall, providing water for crops in addition to the supply from canals and irrigation systems. The transitional period after the monsoon is cool and mild, leading to the winter season, when the temperature in January falls to {{convert at night and by day. During the transitional period from winter to the hot season, sudden hailstorms and heavy showers may occur, causing damage to crops.


The Punjab region of India and Pakistan has a historical and cultural link to Indo-Aryan peoples as well as partially to various indigenous communities. As a result of several invasions from Central Asia and the Middle East, many ethnic groups and religions make up the cultural heritage of the Punjab.

In prehistoric times, one of the earliest known cultures of South Asia, the Indus Valley civilisation was located in the region.

The epic battles described in the Mahabharata are described as being fought in what is now the State of Haryana and historic Punjab. The Gandharas, Kambojas, Trigartas, Andhra, Pauravas, Bahlikas (Bactrian settlers of the Punjab), Yaudheyas and others sided with the Kauravas in the great battle fought at Kurukshetra. According to DrFauja Singh and DrL.M. Joshi: "There is no doubt that the Kambojas, Daradas, Kaikayas, Andhra, Pauravas, Yaudheyas, Malavas, Saindhavas and Kurus had jointly contributed to the heroic tradition and composite culture of ancient Punjab".

In 326 BCE, Alexander the Great invaded Pauravas and defeated King Porus. His armies entered the region via the Hindu Kush in northwest Pakistan and his rule extended up to the city of Sagala (present-day Sialkot in northeast Pakistan). In 305BCE the area was ruled by the Maurya Empire. In a long line of succeeding rulers of the area, Chandragupta Maurya and Ashoka stand out as the most renowned. The Maurya presence in the area was then consolidated in the Indo-Greek Kingdom in 180BCE. Menander I Soter "The Saviour" (known as Milinda in Indian sources) is the most renowned leader of the era, he conquered the Punjab and made Sagala the capital of his Empire. Menander carved out a Greek kingdom in the Punjab and ruled the region till his death in 130BCE. The neighbouring Seleucid Empire rule came to an end around 12BCE, after several invasions by the Yuezhi and the Scythian people.

In 711–713 CE, the 18-year-old Arab general Muhammad bin Qasim of Taif, a city in what is now Saudi Arabia, came by way of the Arabian Sea with Arab troops to defeat Raja Dahir. BinQasim then led his troops to conquer the Sindh and Punjab regions for the Islamic Umayyad Caliphate, making him the first to bring Islam to the region.During the establishment and consolidation of the Muslim Turkic Mughal Empire prosperity, growth, and relative peace were established, particularly under the reign of Jahangir. Muslim empires ruled the Punjab for approximately 1,000 years. The period was also notable for the emergence of Guru Nanak (1469–1539), the founder of Sikhism.

The Afghan forces of Durrani Empire also known as Afghan Empire under the command of Ahmad Shah Durrani entered Punjab in 1749, and captured Punjab, with Lahore being governed by Pashtuns, and Kashmir regions. In 1758, Punjab came under the rule of Marathas, who captured the region by defeating the Afghan forces of Ahmad Shah Abdali. Following Third Battle of Panipat against Marathas, Durranis reconsolidated its power and dominion over the Punjab region, and Kashmir Valley. Abdali's Indian invasion weakened the Maratha influence. After the death of Ahmad Shah, the Punjab was freed from the Afghan rule by Sikhs for a brief period between 1773 and 1818. At the time of the formation of the Dal Khalsa in 1748 at Amritsar, the Punjab had been divided into 36 areas and 12 separate Sikh principalities, called misl. From this point onward, the beginnings of a Punjabi Sikh Empire emerged. Out of the 36 areas, 22 were united by Maharaja Ranjit Singh. The other 14 accepted British sovereignty. After Ranjit Singh's death, assassinations and internal divisions severely weakened the empire. Six years later the British East India Company was given an excuse to declare war, and in 1849, after two Anglo-Sikh wars, the Punjab was annexed by the British.

In the Indian Rebellion of 1857 the Sikh rulers backed the East India Company, providing troops and support, but in Jhelum 35 British soldiers of HMXXIV regiment were killed by the local resistance, and in Ludhiana a rebellion was crushed with the assistance of the Punjab chiefs of Nabha and Malerkotla.

The British Raj had political, cultural, philosophical, and literary consequences in the Punjab, including the establishment of a new system of education. During the independence movement, many Punjabis played a significant role, including Madan Lal Dhingra, Sukhdev Thapar, Ajit Singh Sandhu, Bhagat Singh, Udham Singh, Kartar Singh Sarabha, Bhai Parmanand, Chaudhary Rehmat Ali, and Lala Lajpat Rai.

At the time of partition in 1947, the province was split into East and West Punjab. East Punjab (48%) became part of India, while West Punjab (52%) became part of Pakistan. The Punjab bore the brunt of the civil unrest following the end of the British Raj, with casualties estimated to be in the millions.


  • 3300–1500 BCE: Indus Valley Civilisation
  • 1500–1000 BCE: (Rigvedic) Vedic civilisation
  • 1000–500 BCE: Middle and late Vedic Period
  • 599 BCE: Birth of Mahavira
  • 567–487 BCE: Time of Gautama Buddha
  • 550 BCE – 600 CE: Buddhism remained prevalent
  • 326 BCE: Alexander's Invasion of Punjab
  • 322–298 BCE: Chandragupta I, Maurya period
  • 273–232 BCE: Reign of Ashoka
  • 125–160 BCE: Rise of the Sakas (Scythians)
  • 2 BCE: Beginning of Rule of the Sakas
  • 45–180: Rule of the Kushans
  • 320–550: Gupta Empire
  • 500: Hunnic Invasion
  • 510–650: Vardhana's Era
  • 711–713: Muhammad bin Qasim conquers Sindh and small part of Punjab region
  • 713–1200: Rajput states, Kabul Shahi & small Muslim kingdoms
  • 1206–1290: Mamluk dynasty established by Mohammad Ghori
  • 1290–1320: Khalji dynasty established by Jalal ud din Firuz Khalji
  • 1320–1413: Tughlaq dynasty established by Ghiyasuddin Tughlaq
  • 1414–1451: Sayyid dynasty established by Khizr Khan
  • 1451–1526: Lodhi dynasty established by Bahlul Khan Lodhi
  • 1469–1539: Guru Nanak
  • 1526–1707: Mughal rule
  • 1526–1530: Zaheeruddin Muhammad Babur
  • 1530–1540: Nasiruddin Muhammad Humayun
  • 1540–1545: Sher Shah Suri of Afghanistan
  • 1545–1554: Islam Shah Suri
  • 1555–1556: Nasiruddin Muhammad Humayun
  • 1556–1556: Hem Chandra Vikramaditya
  • 1556–1605: Jalaluddin Muhammad Akbar
  • 1605–1627: Nooruddin Muhammad Jahangir
  • 1627–1658: Shahaabuddin Muhammad Shah Jahan
  • 1658–1707: Mohiuddin Muhammad Aurangzeb Alamgir
  • 1539–1675: Period of 8 Sikh Gurus from Guru Angad Dev to Guru Tegh Bahadur
  • 1675–1708: Guru Gobind Singh (10th Sikh Guru)
  • 1699: Birth of the Khalsa
  • 1708–1713: Conquests of Banda Bahadur
  • 1722: Birth of Ahmed Shah Durrani, either in Multan in Mughal Empire or Herat in Afghanistan
  • 1714–1759: Sikh chiefs (Sardars) war against Afghans & Mughal Governors
  • 1739: Invasion by Nader Shah and defeat of weakened Mughal Empire
  • 1747–1772: Durrani Empire led by Ahmad Shah Durrani
  • 1756–1759: Sikh and Maratha Empire cooperation in the Punjab
  • 1761: The Third Battle of Panipat, between the Durrani Empire against the Maratha Empire.
  • 1762: 2nd massacre (Ghalughara) from Ahmed Shah's 2nd invasion
  • 1765–1801: Rise of the Sikh Misls which gained control of significant swathes of Punjab
  • 1801–1839: Sikh Empire also known as Sarkar Khalsa, Rule by Maharaja Ranjit Singh
  • 1845–1846: First Anglo-Sikh War
  • 1846: Jammu joined with the new state of Jammu and Kashmir
  • 1848–1849: Second Anglo-Sikh War
  • 1849: Complete annexation of Punjab into British India
  • 1849–1947: British rule
  • 1901: Peshawar and adjoining districts separated from the Punjab Province
  • 1911: Parts of Delhi separated from Punjab Province
  • 1947: The Partition of India divided Punjab into two parts. The Eastern part (with two rivers) became the Indian Punjab and the Western part (three rivers) the Pakistan Punjab
  • 1966: Indian Punjab divided into three parts: Punjab, Haryana, and Himachal Pradesh
  • 1973–1995: Punjab insurgency



    The major language is Punjabi, (ਪੰਜਾਬੀ / پنجابی) written in India with the Gurmukhi script, and in Pakistan using the Shahmukhi script. It has official status and is widely used in education and administration in Indian Punjab, whereas in Pakistani Punjab these roles are instead played by Urdu. In the western half of the Pakistani province, the major native languages are Saraiki, Hindko and Pothwari, all of which are closely related to Punjabi.


    The vast majority of Pakistani Punjabis are Sunni Muslim by faith, but also include large minority faiths mostly Shia Muslim, Ahmadis and Christians. Sikhism, founded by Guru Nanak is the main religion practised in the post-1966 Indian Punjab state. About 57.7% of the population of Punjab state is Sikh, 38.5% is Hindu, and the rest are Muslims, Christians, and Jains. Punjab state contains the holy Sikh cities of Amritsar, Anandpur Sahib, Tarn Taran Sahib, Fatehgarh Sahib and Chamkaur Sahib.

    The Punjab was home to several Sufi saints, and Sufism is well established in the region. Also, Kirpal Singh revered the Sikh Gurus as saints.

    Punjabi festivals

    Punjabis celebrate different festivals based on their following culture, season and religion: Sikhism and Hinduism
  • Maghi
  • Lohri
  • Maha Shivratri
  • Holi
  • Vaisakhi
  • Teeyan
  • Raksha Bandhan
  • Diwali
  • Gurpurab
  • Hola Mohalla
  • Mela Chiraghan
  • Bandi Chhor Divas
  • Dussehra
  • Karwa Chauth
  • Navratri
  • Basant Islam
  • Shab-e-Miraj
  • Eid al-Fitr
  • Eid al-Adha Others
  • Christmas

    Punjabi clothing

    Traditional Punjabi clothing differs depending on the region. It includes the following:

  • Salwar
  • Patiala salwar
  • Punjabi Tamba and Kurta
  • Phulkari
  • Punjabi ghagra
  • Shalwar kameez
  • Kurta


    The historical region of Punjab is considered to be one of the most fertile regions on Earth. Both east and west Punjab produce a relatively high proportion of India and Pakistan's food output respectively.

    The region has been used for extensive wheat farming. In addition, rice, cotton, sugarcane, fruit, and vegetables are also grown.

    The agricultural output of the Punjab region in Pakistan contributes significantly to Pakistan's GDP. Both Indian and Pakistani Punjab are considered to have the best infrastructure of their respective countries. Indian Punjab has been estimated to be the second richest state in India. Pakistani Punjab produces 68% of Pakistan's food grain production. Its share of Pakistan's GDP has historically ranged from 51.8% to 54.7%.

    Called "The Granary of India" or "The Bread Basket of India", Indian Punjab produces 1% of the world's rice, 2% of its wheat, and 2% of its cotton. In 2001, it was recorded that farmers made up 39% of Indian Punjab's workforce.

    Alternatively, Punjab is also adding to the economy with the increase in employment of Punjab youth in the private sector. Government schemes such as 'Ghar Ghar Rozgar and Karobar Mission' have brought enhanced employability in the private sector. So far, 32,420 youths have been placed in different jobs and 12,114 have been skill-trained.