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Mixolydian mode

Mixolydian mode is a musical mode. In the modern sense, it is the scale on the white piano keys that starts with G. Its ascending sequence consists of a root note, whole step, whole step, half step, whole step, whole step, half step, whole step (to octave).

The term "Mixolydian mode" may refer to one of three things: the name applied to one of the ancient Greek harmoniai or tonoi, based on a particular octave species or scale; one of the medieval church modes; a modern musical mode or diatonic scale, related to the medieval mode. (The Hypomixolydian mode of medieval music, by contrast, has no modern counterpart.)

: { override Score.TimeSignature #'stencil = ##f elative c' { clef treble ime 7/4 c4^markup { Modern C Mixolydian scale } d e f g a bes c2

} }
The modern diatonic mode is the scale forming the basis of both the rising and falling forms of Harikambhoji in Carnatic music, the classical music form of southern India.

Greek Mixolydian

The idea of a Mixolydian mode comes from the music theory of ancient Greece. The invention of the ancient Greek Mixolydian mode was attributed to Sappho, the 7th-century-B.C. poet and musician. However, what the ancient Greeks thought of as Mixolydian was very different from the modern interpretation of the mode.

In Greek theory, the Mixolydian tonos (the term "mode" is a later Latin term) employs a scale (or "octave species") corresponding to the Greek Hypolydian mode inverted. In its diatonic genus, this is a scale descending from paramese to hypate hypaton. In the diatonic genus, a whole tone (paramese to mese) followed by two conjunct inverted Lydian tetrachords (each being two whole tones followed by a semitone descending). This diatonic genus of the scale is roughly the equivalent of playing all the white notes of a piano from B to B, which is also known as modern Locrian mode.

: { override Score.TimeSignature #'stencil = ##f elative c' { clef treble ime 7/4 e4^markup { Greek Mixolydian tonos (diatonic genus) on E } f g a bes c d e2

} }
In the chromatic and enharmonic genera, each tetrachord consists of a minor third plus two semitones, and a major third plus two quarter tones, respectively. : { override Score.TimeSignature #'stencil = ##f elative c' { clef treble ime 7/4 e4^markup { Greek Mixolydian tonos (chromatic genus) on E } f ges a bes ces d e2

} }


: { override Score.TimeSignature #'stencil = ##f elative c' { clef treble ime 7/4

e4^markup { Greek Mixolydian tonos (enharmonic genus) on E } feh geses a beseh ceses d e2

} }


Medieval Mixolydian and Hypomixolydian

The term Mixolydian was originally used to designate one of the traditional harmoniai of Greek theory. It was appropriated later (along with six other names) by 2nd-century theorist Ptolemy to designate his seven tonoi or transposition keys. Four centuries later, Boethius interpreted Ptolemy in Latin, still with the meaning of transposition keys, not scales.

When chant theory was first being formulated in the 9th century, these seven names plus an eighth, Hypermixolydian (later changed to Hypomixolydian), were again re-appropriated in the anonymous treatise Alia Musica. A commentary on that treatise, called the Nova expositio, first gave it a new sense as one of a set of eight diatonic species of the octave, or scales. The name Mixolydian came to be applied to one of the eight modes of medieval church music: the seventh mode. This mode does not run from B to B on white notes, as the Greek mode, but was defined in two ways: as the diatonic octave species from G up one octave to the G above, or as a mode whose final was G and whose ambitus runs from the F below the final to the G above, with possible extensions "by licence" up to A above and even down to E below, and in which the note D (the tenor of the corresponding seventh psalm tone) had an important melodic function. This medieval theoretical construction led to the modern use of the term for the natural scale from G to G.

The seventh mode of western church music is an authentic mode based on and encompassing the natural scale from G to G, with the perfect fifth (the D in a G to G scale) as the dominant, reciting note or tenor.

The plagal eighth mode was termed Hypomixolydian (or "lower Mixolydian") and, like the Mixolydian, was defined in two ways: as the diatonic octave species from D to the D an octave higher, divided at the mode final, G (thus D–E–F–G + G–A–B–C–D); or as a mode with a final of G and an ambitus from C below the final to E above it, in which the note C (the tenor of the corresponding eighth psalm tone) had an important melodic function.

Modern Mixolydian

The modern Mixolydian scale is the fifth mode of the major scale (Ionian mode). That is, it can be constructed by starting on the fifth scale degree (the dominant) of the major scale. Because of this, the Mixolydian mode is sometimes called the dominant scale.

: { override Score.TimeSignature #'stencil = ##f elative c'' { clef treble ime 7/4 g4^markup { Modern G Mixolydian scale } a b c d e f g2

} }
This scale has the same series of tones and semitones as the major scale, but with a minor seventh. As a result, the seventh scale degree is a subtonic, rather than a leading-tone. The flattened seventh of the scale is a tritone away from the mediant (major-third degree) of the key. The order of whole tones and semitones in a Mixolydian scale is

:whole, whole, half, whole, whole, half, whole

In the Mixolydian mode, the tonic, subdominant, and subtonic triads are all major, the mediant is diminished, and the remaining triads are minor.

The Mixolydian mode is common in non-classical harmony, such as folk, jazz, funk, blues, and rock music.

Klezmer musicians refer to the Mixolydian scale as the Adonai malakh mode. In Klezmer, it is usually transposed to C, where the main chords used are C, F, and G7 (sometimes Gm).

Notable music in Mixolydian mode

Traditional

  • "Old Joe Clark"
  • "Paddy's Green Shamrock Shore" – A traditional Irish folk song.
  • "She Moved Through the Fair" – A traditional Irish folk song.

    Classical

  • "Fughetta super: Dies sind die heilgen zehn Gebot" in G Major from Clavier-Übung III, BWV 679 by Johann Sebastian Bach
  • Piano Concerto in A minor, third movement, by Edvard Grieg

    Popular

  • "Clocks" by Coldplay
  • "Dark Star" by the Grateful Dead, modal in A Mixolydian
  • "Express Yourself" by Madonna
  • "Gloria" by Them
  • "Green Light" by Lorde
  • "Hey Jude" by the Beatles ("outro" section only)
  • "I Think We're Alone Now" by The Shondells
  • "Lay Lady Lay" by Bob Dylan
  • "Let It Loose" by The Rolling Stones
  • "Marquee Moon" by Television
  • "Morning Mr. Magpie" by Radiohead
  • "Norwegian Wood" by The Beatles (with some verses in Dorian mode)
  • "Ramblin' Man" by The Allman Brothers Band (with blues flavoring)
  • "Royals" by Lorde
  • Theme From Star Trek
  • "Sweet Child o' Mine" (solo is in E natural minor with a few bars of harmonic minor) by Guns N' Roses
  • "This Is a Low" by Blur
  • "You and I" by Lady Gaga
  • "All Blues" by Miles Davis