# List of convexity topics

This is a

**list of convexity topics**, by Wikipedia page.

Alpha blending - the process of combining a translucent foreground color with a background color, thereby producing a new blended color. This is a convex combination of two colors allowing for transparency effects in computer graphics.
Barycentric coordinates - a coordinate system in which the location of a point of a simplex (a triangle, tetrahedron, etc.) is specified as the center of mass, or barycenter, of masses placed at its vertices. The coordinates are non-negative for points in the convex hull.
Borsuk's conjecture - a conjecture about the number of pieces required to cover a body with a larger diameter. Solved by Hadwiger for the case of smooth convex bodies.
Bond convexity - a measure of the non-linear relationship between price and yield duration of a bond to changes in interest rates, the second derivative of the price of the bond with respect to interest rates. A basic form of convexity in finance.
Carathéodory's theorem (convex hull) - If a point *x* of R lies in the convex hull of a set *P*, there is a subset of *P* with *d*+1 or fewer points such that *x* lies in its convex hull.
Choquet theory - an area of functional analysis and convex analysis concerned with measures with support on the extreme points of a convex set *C*. Roughly speaking, all vectors of *C* should appear as 'averages' of extreme points.
Complex convexity — extends the notion of convexity to complex numbers.
Convex analysis - the branch of mathematics devoted to the study of properties of convex functions and convex sets, often with applications in convex minimization.
Convex combination - a linear combination of points where all coefficients are non-negative and sum to 1. All convex combinations are within the convex hull of the given points.
*Convex and Concave* - a print by Escher in which many of the structure's features can be seen as both convex shapes and concave impressions.
Convex body - a compact convex set in a Euclidean space whose interior is non-empty.
Convex conjugate - a dual of a real functional in a vector space. Can be interpreted as an encoding of the convex hull of the function's epigraph in terms of its supporting hyperplanes.
Convex curve - a curve that lies entirely on one side of each of its tangents. The interior of a convex curve is a convex set.

Convex function - a function in which the line segment between any two points on the graph of the function lies above the graph.
Closed convex function - a convex function whose every the sublevel set is a closed set.
Proper convex function - a convex function whose effective domain is nonempty and it never attains minus infinity.
Concave function - the negative of a convex function.
Convex geometry - the branch of geometry studying convex sets, mainly in Euclidean space. Contains three sub-branches: general convexity, polytopes and polyhedra, and discrete geometry.
Convex hull (aka *convex envelope*) - the smallest convex set that contains a given set of points in Euclidean space.
Convex lens - a lens in which one or two sides is curved or bowed outwards. Light passing through the lens is converged (or focused) to a spot behind the lens.
Convex optimization - a subfield of optimization, studies the problem of minimizing convex functions over convex sets. The convexity property can make optimization in some sense "easier" than the general case - for example, any local minimum must be a global minimum.
Convex polygon - a 2-dimensional polygon whose interior is a convex set in the Euclidean plane.
Convex polytope - an *n*-dimensional polytope which is also a convex set in the Euclidean *n*-dimensional space.
Convex set - a set in Euclidean space in which contains every segment between every two of its points.
Convexity (finance) - refers to non-linearities in a financial model. When the price of an underlying variable changes, the price of an output does not change linearly, but depends on the higher-order derivatives of the modeling function. Geometrically, the model is no longer flat but curved, and the degree of curvature is called the convexity.
Epigraph (mathematics) - for a function *f* : **R**n→**R**, the set of points lying on or above its graph
Extreme point - for a convex set *S* in a real vector space, a point in S which does not lie in any open line segment joining two points of *S*.
Fenchel conjugate
Fenchel's inequality
Fixed-point theorems in infinite-dimensional spaces, generalise the Brouwer fixed-point theorem. They have applications, for example, to the proof of existence theorems for partial differential equations
Four vertex theorem - every convex curve has at least 4 vertices.
Gift wrapping algorithm - an algorithm for computing the convex hull of a given set of points
Graham scan - a method of finding the convex hull of a finite set of points in the plane with time complexity O(*n* log *n*)
Hadwiger conjecture (combinatorial geometry) - any convex body in *n*-dimensional Euclidean space can be covered by 2 or fewer smaller bodies homothetic with the original body.
Hadwiger's theorem - a theorem that characterizes the valuations on convex bodies in R.
Helly's theorem
Hyperplane - a subspace whose dimension is one less than that of its ambient space
Indifference curve
Infimal convolute
Interval (mathematics) - a set of real numbers with the property that any number that lies between two numbers in the set is also included in the set
Jarvis march
Jensen's inequality - relates the value of a convex function of an integral to the integral of the convex function
John ellipsoid - *E*(*K*) associated to a convex body *K* in *n*-dimensional Euclidean space **R***n* is the ellipsoid of maximal *n*-dimensional volume contained within *K*.
Lagrange multiplier - a strategy for finding the local maxima and minima of a function subject to equality constraints
Legendre transformation - an involutive transformation on the real-valued convex functions of one real variable
Locally convex topological vector space - example of topological vector spaces (TVS) that generalize normed spaces
Mahler volume - a dimensionless quantity that is associated with a centrally symmetric convex body
Minkowski's theorem - any convex set in ℝ*n* which is symmetric with respect to the origin and with volume greater than 2*n* d(*L*) contains a non-zero lattice point
Mixed volume
Mixture density
Newton polygon - a tool for understanding the behaviour of polynomials over local fields
Radon's theorem - on convex sets, that any set of *d* + 2 points in **R***d* can be partitioned into two disjoint sets whose convex hulls intersect
Separating axis theorem
Shapley–Folkman lemma - a result in convex geometry with applications in mathematical economics that describes the Minkowski addition of sets in a vector space
Shephard's problem - a geometrical question
Simplex - a generalization of the notion of a triangle or tetrahedron to arbitrary dimensions
Simplex method - a popular algorithm for linear programming
Subdifferential - generalization of the derivative to functions which are not differentiable
Supporting hyperplane - a hyperplane meeting certain conditions
Supporting hyperplane theorem - that defines a supporting hyperplane

Convexity
Category:Mathematical analysis
Category:Convex geometry