Keio University, abbreviated as or , is a private university located in Minato, Tokyo, Japan. It is known as the oldest institute of modern higher education in Japan. Founder Fukuzawa Yukichi originally established it as a school for Western studies in 1858 in Edo (now Tokyo). It has eleven campuses in Tokyo and Kanagawa. It has ten faculties: Letters, Economics, Law, Business and Commerce, Medicine, Science and Technology, Policy Management, Environment and Information Studies, Nursing and Medical Care, and Pharmacy.
The university has more than 350 student exchange programs with prestigious Institutions such as University of California, Brown University, University of Pennsylvania, Carnegie Mellon University, Dartmouth College, École normale supérieure (Paris) and Ecole Polytechnique. Moreover, Keio has 29 double degree programs with leading institutions such as Sciences Po, HEC Paris (both with the department of economics), University of Washington (Law School), and Mines ParisTech (Master, Sci.and Tech.)
The university is one of the members of Top Global University Project, funded by the Japanese Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology . Besides, Keio University is one of the member universities of RU11 and APRU, and it is one of only two Japanese universities (alongside the University of Tokyo) to be a member of the World Economic Forum's Global University Leaders Forum.
Its list of alumni and faculties includes three former prime ministers, two astronauts, six international honorary members of American Academy of Arts and Sciences, and a Wolf Prize winner. Meanwhile, Keio University produces the largest number of CEOs of companies listed with the first section of Tokyo Stock Exchange and ranks 9th (in the world) in top 100 Global Executives, according to Times Higher Education's "Alma Master Index".
OverviewKeio traces its history to 1858 when Fukuzawa Yukichi, who had studied the Western educational system at Brown University in the United States, started to teach Dutch while he was a guest of the Okudaira family. In 1868 he changed the name of the school to Keio Gijuku and devoted all his time to education. While Keiō's initial identity was that of a private school of Western studies, it expanded and established its first university faculty in 1890, and became known as a leading institute in Japanese higher education. It was the first Japanese university to reach its 150th anniversary, celebrating this anniversary in 2008.
Keio has leading research centers. It has approximately 30 Research Centers located on its five main campuses and at other facilities for advanced research in Japan. Keio University Research Institute at SFC (KRIS) has joined the MIT and the French INRIA in hosting the international W3C.
MissionFukuzawa stated the mission of Keio shown below, which is based on his speech at the alumni party on November 1, 1896.
Keio Gijuku shouldn't be satisfied with being just one educational institution.
Its mission is expected to be a model of the nobility of intelligence and virtue,
to make clear how it can be applied to its family, society, and nation,
and to take an actual action of this statement.
It expects all students being leaders in society by the practice of this mission.
Those sentences were given to students as his will, and considered as the simple expression of Keio's actual mission.
Contributor to Japanese modern education systemsKeio is known for being the first institution to introduce many modern education systems in Japan. The following are the examples:
Dokuritsu JisonKeio put "" as a foundation of its education. This is meant to be physically and mentally independent, and respect yourself for keeping your virtue. Independence and self-respect are also regarded as Fukuzawa's nature and essence of his education.
Hangaku Hankyois the other unique culture in Keio. During the late Edo period and the early Meiji period, several private prep schools often used students as assistant teachers and it was called "Learning half and teaching half". Keio also had initially used this system. In the early period of such schools of Western studies, there had been many things to learn not only for students but also professors themselves. Hence there had been sometimes the occasions that students who had learned in advance had taught other students and even professors. After the proper legal systems for education had been set up, those situations have disappeared. However, Fukuzawa thought the essence of academia was and is a continuous learning, and knowing more things provides more learning opportunities. Keio respects his thought and put the rule in "" that there shouldn't be any hierarchy between teachers and learners, and all of the people in Keio Gijuku are in the same company. For this reason, there is still a culture in this university that all professors and lecturers are officially called with the honorific of "Kun" but never "Teacher" or "Professor".
Shachu no Kyoryokuis also a uniqueness of Keio. Fukuzawa stated in 1879 that the Keio's success today is because of the collaboration in its company, and "Collaboration in a company" originally came from this article. People in Keio often think that all of the people related to Keio (e.g. professors, students, alumni and their family members) are the part of their company, thus they should try to help each other like brothers and sisters. This culture has been often seen especially in the alumni organization called Mita-Kai.
Historywas established in 1858 as a School of Western studies located in one of the mansion houses in Tsukiji by the founder Fukuzawa Yukichi. Its root is considered as the Han school for Kokugaku studies named Shinshu Kan established in 1796. Keio changed its name as "Keio Gijuku" in 1868, which came from the era name "Keio" and "Gijuku" as the translation of Private school. It moved to the current location in 1871, established the Medical school in 1873, and the official university department with Economics, Law and Literacy study in 1890.
Keio has been forming its structure in the following chronological order.There have been several notable things in Keio's over 150-year history as shown below.
PresidentsSince the president system was established in 1881, there have been 18 presidents in Keio's history.
Student bodyIn 2011, there are 33,825 students in Keio University, with 28,931 undergraduate students and 4,894 graduate students. Although two third of student body are male students, this ratio highly depends on the major (63% of students are female in the Faculty of letters, for instance).
There are 1072 international students in May 2011, with 438 undergraduate students (1.5% of total undergraduate students), 480 graduate students (9.8% of total graduate students) and 90 students in the exchange program. Korea is the country which provides the most number of international students with 381 students, followed by China (300), Taiwan (57), France (42), Indonesia (27), USA (27) and Germany (22).
SocietiesIn Japanese universities, there are student societies called "circles". Although the exact number is not clear, there are over 410 circles in Keio.
FestivalsKeio holds school festivals every year in each campus. The main festival is called "Mita Sai" on Mita campus, which is usually held in late November. Mita Sai includes various activities for not only entertainment but also academic purposes. It is also a research workshop for students on Mita campus. Approximately 200,000 people visit Mita Sai every year.
AthleticsEdward Bramwell Clarke and Tanaka Ginnosuke first introduced Rugby union to Japanese students at Keio University. (The game had been played in the treaty ports of Yokohama and Kobe before that, but not between Japanese teams.)
The interest of Keio's students in baseball stretches back to the early years of the 20th century; and the history of exhibition games was reported internationally. In 1913, an American professional team made of players from the New York Giants and the Chicago White Sox played the Keio team in an exhibition game. In a 1932 exhibition game, the Keio team beat the University of Michigan team which was then touring Japan. Keio's baseball team plays in the Tokyo Big6 Baseball League (six prominent universities in the Tokyo area).
Association footballKeio University association football (soccer) team is currently the most successful team in the Emperor's Cup, despite their last triumph was in 1956. They have won nine times, a number no professional team had ever achieved in the tournament.
Traditionally, there has been a strong rivalry between Keio and Waseda University. There are annually many matches between 2 universities in several sports, such as baseball, rowing and rugby. These games are called "Kei–So Sen (慶早戦)", or more generally "So–Kei Sen (早慶戦)".
The Kei-So baseball game is especially famous because of its over 100-year history and importance in Japanese baseball history. The most famous Kei-So baseball match was held on 1943/10/16, and it was made into a movie titled "The Last Game – the Final So-Kei Sen -" in 2008.
There are 2 Kei-So baseball game seasons every year and they are usually broadcast by NHK. There is no lecture on all campuses in Keio on the game day because of the students who want to watch this match. Japanese emperors visited Kei-So baseball games 3 times in 1929,1950 and 1994.
Keio and Waseda have been often compared to each other in other general topics, such as their popularity and alumni's successes. In fact, there are many books and magazine articles which compared with these universities.
Keio University is one of the most prestigious universities in Japan. In World rankings, Times Higher Education estimates that Keio is 351–400th place in general academic rankings.
ScandalsIn October 2016, 6 male students from Keio Advertisement Society, a long-standing student club famous for its organisation of the Miss Keio pageant contest, were investigated for gang rape during club activity. An out-of-court settlement was reached and the students were not prosecuted. In May 2018, another 3 students, amongst which is a past candidate for school's Mister Keio pageant, were arrested for sexual assaults.
In November and December 2019, both the American football team and the cheerleading club ( 応援指導部 ) suspended club activities for "inappropriate behaviours". In January 2020, it is reported a former secretarial staff to the school president installed camera on a female toilet stall at Mita campus, filming over 1000 videos over 3 months.
In June 2017, the school's election committee unconventionally selected Haseyama Akira, a legal history professor who only won second place at the general election amongst teachers and staffs, to be the school's new president, breaking a 50 years convention.
In March 2017, a student Tennis club was disbanded after a student death during club activity due to alcohol poisoning. 2 other Keio students died due to over-drinking in 2012 and 2013.
In March 2016, a high level of asbestos was reported at facilities on Yagami campus. The school released its own report a year after stating the level of asbestos was on standard level. Online records of the original reports were made unavailable.
Academic rankingsKeio ranks 7th in the world in the Times Higher Education's Alma Mater Index. It ranks 24th globally in the Center for World University Rankings (CWUR) and 3rd in Asia. Keio is ranked at 42th of the Reuters Top 100 innovative universities worldwide. British Quacquarelli Symonds (QS) company estimates that Keio is ranked the 142nd in QS World University Rankings 2017/18. It is ranked the 29th in QS World University Ranking 2017/18 for Graduate Employability Ranking. In the Asian University Ranking (2015), Quacquarelli Symonds also ranked Keio as 24th in Asia. The Academic Ranking of World Universities (2015), which is compiled by Shanghai Jiao Tong University, ranks Keio 101-200 in the world and 24th in Asia. Also Keio University is the best private university in Japan.
Research performanceAccording to Thomson Reuters, Keio is the 5th best research university in Japan, and it's the only private university within Top 5. In addition, Weekly Diamond reported that Keio has the 8th highest research standard in Japan in terms of research fundings per researchers in COE Program, and it's also the only private university within Top 7. Asahi Shimbun summarized the amount of academic papers in Japanese major legal journals by university, and Keio was ranked 2nd during 2005–2019. Accordingly, Keio is a prominent research university within Japan.
In Economics, According to Asahi Shimbun, Keio's been ranked 3th in Japan in the economic research ranking during 2005–2019. More recently, Repec in January 2011 ranked Keio's Economic department as Japan's 5th best economic research university. Keio has provided 3 presidents of Japanese Economic Association in its 42-year history, and this number is 5th largest.
In addition, Nikkei Shimbun on 2004/2/16 surveyed about the research standards in Engineering studies based on Thomson Reuters, Grants in Aid for Scientific Research and questionnaires to heads of 93 leading Japanese Research Centers, and Keio was placed 5th (research planning ability 4th/informative ability of research outcome 3rd) in this ranking.
BusinessKeio ranks second in Japan, for the number of alumni holding CEO positions in Fortune Global 500 companies, according to Mines ParisTech: Professional Ranking of World Universities. Keio is also ranked 1st in Japan for the number of alumni generally holding executive positions (when positions like COO, CFO, CIO etc. are included along with the CEO position) in listed companies of Japan, and this number per student (probability of becoming an executive) is also top.
Keio Business School is Japan's first business school and one of only two Japanese schools holding The Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business (AACSB) accreditation. Keio was ranked No. 1 in Japan by Nikkei Shimbun. Eduniversal also ranked Keio as top in Japan (45th in the world). In Eduniversal Keio is one of only 3 Japanese schools categorized in "Universal Business schools with major international influence". In 2012, the Keio Business School became founding member of the university alliance Council on Business & Society that consists of Tuck School of Business from USA, University of Mannheim Business School from Germany, ESSEC Business School from France, Fudan University from China, Fundação Getúlio Vargas from Brazil and Keio Business School.
According to the Weekly Economist's 2010 rankings and the PRESIDENT's article on 16 October 2006, graduates from Keio University have the 2rd best employment rate in 400 major companies, and the alumni's average salary is the 3rd best in Japan.
AccountingAs an extension of Keio's strong business focus, for over 50 years, Keio graduates have been ranked first in Japan in the number of successful national CPA exam applicants.
MedicineKeio has been influential in Japanese medical societies as well. In fact, there have been 4 presidents of Japan Medical Association related to this university (2 Alumni and 2 professors). This number is the 2nd largest among Japanese medical schools. Keio is one of 2 Japanese universities which provided a president of World Medical Association.
LawKeio's law faculty is typically ranked among the best in all of Japan along with the University of Tokyo, University of Kyoto, Chuo University, and Hitotsubashi University. In 2010 and 2015, Keio University Law School ranked highest among all Japanese universities for Bar Exam passage rate. Furthermore, the number of Members of Parliament who graduated Keio has been 3rd in Japan.
Popularity and selectivityKeio is a popular university in Japan, often considered one of Japan's top two private university alongside Waseda University, their eternal equal and rival. But Keio is stronger than Waseda. The number of applicants per place was 11.7 (48260/4098) in the 2018 undergraduate admissions. Its entrance difficulty is usually considered as top among 730 private universities.
Nikkei BP has been publishing a ranking system called "Brand rankings of Japanese universities" every year, composed by the various indications related to the power of brand, in which Keio was top in 2014 and ranked second in 2015 and 2016 in Greater Tokyo Area. Webometrics (2008) also ranks Keio University as 3rd in Japan, 10th in Asia, and 178th in the world for quantity and quality of web presence and link visibility.
In a unique ranking, TBS ranked Japanese universities by the questionnaire of "Which university student do you want to have as your boyfriend?" to 300 girls in Shibuya, and Keio was ranked 1st in this ranking .
FinanceAccording to Keio's financial report, there was operating revenue of 197 billion yen in 2010. The top 3 largest incomes were from "Tuition and fees", "Medical care" and "Capital gain", with 49 billion yen, 48 billion yen and 21 billion yen respectively. The amount of endowments in 2010 was about 5 billion yen. Keio is known as having one of the largest financial endowments of any Japanese university.
On the other hand, the top 3 largest expenses in 2010 were "Compensation and benefits", "Education & Research" and "Investment", with 65 billion yen, 52 billion yen and 33 billion yen respectively. The total asset value in 2010 was about 364 billion yen with increase of 5 billion yen. In addition, the total amount of assets under management was approximately 109 billion yen in 2010, composed by mainly cash, deposit with banks and marketable securities.
Tuition feesThe university tuition fee system in Japan is different from other countries and very complicated. In most Japanese universities, there are more payment requirements in the first year such as "entrance fees", and less in the rest of the years. There are several types of fees (some require to pay only once and some require to pay once or twice every year) and so-called "course fee" is officially only one of those fees.
In Keio University, Tuition fees vary and depend on the course. Social Science & Humanity studies require the least fees with approximately 1,110,000 yen per year, and School of Medicine requires the most expensive fees with about 3,610,000 yen per year. The tuition fees in graduate school are much less than those for undergraduate studies, as 690,000 yen per year for Social Science & Humanities and 1,313,000 yen per year for School of Medicine.
Although it is acceptable to pay twice with half in spring and half in autumn, the "entrance fee" is necessary to be paid before enrollment. The entrance fee for undergraduate study is 200,000 yen and the one for graduate study is 310,000 yen.
Scholarship/loanThere are many students who receive additional financial support. For example, in 2008, there were 9,764 students (about 30% of all students) who used either scholarships or loans. Additionally, Keio funds over 3,000 students who receive, on average, scholarships of 300,000 yen.
FacultiesKeio has ten undergraduate faculties, which cover a wide range of academic fields, with each operating independently and offering broad educational and research activities. The faculties are:
Keio's Media Centers, with combined holdings of over 4.58 million books and publications, are one of the largest academic information storehouses in the country.
Information technology centers
Affiliated schoolsElementary education
Hospital and rehabilitation centerKeio University Hospital is one of the largest and most well-known general hospitals in Japan, the number of surgeries for carcinoma uteri in 2007 was top and the one for lung cancer was third among all university hospitals. and is also a famous teaching hospital. The number of trainee doctors who selected Keio as their first choice training hospital was 30 (33rd) among all Japanese teaching hospitals in 2010. Established in 1920, it has over 1,000 beds, a leading laboratory, and research and medical information divisions.
CampusesThere are eleven campuses.
Alumni and professorsSome of the prominent Keio alumni include: Japanese Prime Ministers Junichiro Koizumi (2001–2006), Ryutaro Hashimoto (1996–1998), and Tsuyoshi Inukai (1931–1932). Dozens of other alumni have been cabinet members and governors in the post-war period. Its alumni include 230 CEOs of major companies and 97 CEOs of foreign affiliated companies (both highest in Japan). Keio has over 320,000 alumni in 866 alumni associations.
Public servants, international organizations
Central Bank Governors
Other business people
AcademiaDozens of alumni and Professors have been elected as academy members or been in important positions.
He is thought as one of the Nobel Prize candidates in Physics in terms of the achievement of plastic optical fiber.(Sci. and Tech)
Gutenberg BibleThe only copy held outside Europe or North America is a first volume facsimile of the Gutenberg Bible (Hubay 45) at Keio University. Purchased by the university in 1996, from Maruzen booksellers who originally purchased the copy at auction in 1987 for US$5.4 million.
The Humanities Media Interface Project (HUMI) at Keio University is known for its high-quality digital images of Gutenberg Bibles and other rare books. Under the direction of Professor Toshiyuki Takamiya, the HUMI team has made digital reproductions of eleven sets of the bible in nine institutions, including in 2000, both full-text facsimiles held in the collection of the British Library.