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Jalandhar

Jalandhar is a city in the Indian state of Punjab. Jalandhar lies alongside the Grand Trunk Road and is a well-connected rail and road junction. Jalandhar is 146 km northwest of Chandigarh, the state capital of Punjab and Haryana. Its name was rendered Jullundur during the British period.

History



The history of Jalandhar District comprises three periods — ancient, medieval and modern.

The city may be named after Jalandhara, a demon king, who is named in the Puranas and Mahabharata. Other possibilities include that it was the capital of the kingdom of Lava, son of Rama or that the name derives from the vernacular term Jalandhar, meaning area inside the water, i.e., tract lying between the two rivers Satluj and Beas. The whole of Punjab and the area of present Jalandhar District was part of the Indus Valley Civilization. Harappa and Mohenjo-daro are the sites where remains of the Indus Valley Civilization have been found extensively. The archaeological explorations made during recent years have pushed the ancient times of Jalandhar District of Harappa period. Jalandhar was ruled by King Arjan Singh.

Jalandhar was conquered by the Ghaznavids during the reign of Ibrahim of Ghazni between 1058–89. It later formed part of the province of Lahore during the Delhi Sultanate and Mughal Empire. The 18th century saw upheaval in Jalandhar amidst an anarchy caused by the disintegration of the Mughals and power struggles involving Persians, Afghans and Sikhs. It was captured by the Faizullahpuria Misl in 1766, and in 1811 Ranjit Singh incorporated it within the Sikh Empire.

In 1849, following the annexation of the Punjab by the East India Company, the city of Jalandhar, now spelt Jullundur, became the headquarters of the Division and District of the same name. In the mid 19th century, British officials regarded Jalandhar as densely populated and farmed to capacity. This led to the district being a chief recruitment area for settlers to colonise the newly irrigated Punjab Canal Colonies in western Punjab.

The Khilafat Movement started in the district in early 1920 to bring pressure on the government to change their policy towards Turkey. Mahatma Gandhi extended sympathy and support to this movement however in response the District was declared a 'Proclaimed Area' under the Seditious Meetings Act. In 1924, Pakistani general and military dictator Muhammad Zia-ul-Haq was born in the city.

The Partition of India in 1947 saw Jalandhar become part of the new dominion of India. The resulting rioting and violence caused by Partition led to major demographic change in the district, with the exodus of the large Muslim population and the arrival of Hindus and Sikhs from newly created Pakistan.

Climate

The city has a humid subtropical climate with cool winters and long, hot summers. Summers last from April to June and winters from November to February. Temperatures in the summer vary from average highs of around 48 C}} to average lows of around to lows of {{convert. The climate is dry on the whole, except during the brief southwest monsoon season during July and August. The average annual rainfall is about 70 cm. In 2018, Jalandhar witnessed Heavy rainfall, with over 20% increase from average rainfall. Since it is in the northern plains, it feels really cold during winters and very hot during summers.

Demographics

Population



As per provisional data of 2011 census Jalandhar had a population of 873,725, of which 463,975 were male and 409,750 female.

Literacy

The literacy rate was 86.22 per cent. For males and females respectively the literacy rate was 88.82% and 83.30%

Religion



As per the census of 2011, Hinduism and Sikhism are the religions of the vast majority of people in Jalandhar.

Pre partition era Jalandhar had a large population of Muslims. According to 1941 census of Punjab, Muslims made up 45.2% of the population, compared to Hindus and Sikhs being 27.6% and 26.5% respectively. Within a period of 10 years, from 1941 to 1951, Muslim population in Jalandhar reduced from 45.2% to 0.2%.

Economy

Jalandhar has been selected in the second phase of the smart city project and 200 crores have been allocated to the municipal corporation for initializing the project.

Jalandhar exports goods like furniture, glass to neighboring cities and is a global hub for the manufacture of sporting equipment. Jalandhar is famous for its sports industry and equipment manufactured in Jalandhar has been used in many international sporting games including Olympics, Commonwealth Games, Asian Games, among others. It is also a hub for manufacturing of hand tools. Jalandhar is also famous for its leather industry, leather for footwear, leather goods, furniture being sold to export houses located at Delhi, Agra, Kanpur and other Indian cities, Together with Hand tools it is a major production centre of Industrial tool bags being used by workmen in America & Europe.

Many new malls and shopping complexes are being established at a very rapid pace and as such is also a hub of the NRI's who among many of them belong to Jalandhar region.

Transport



By air

The nearest airport is Adampur Airport, northwest of Jalandhar which currently handles only scheduled operation on maiden flights of private carrier Spicejet to Delhi. The nearest fully-fledged International Airport is Sri Guru Ram Dass Jee International Airport in Amritsar. It is one of the busiest airports in North India, and is connected to other parts of the country by regular flights. Several airlines operate flights from abroad, including London Stansted, Birmingham, Dubai, Singapore, Kuala Lumpur and Doha. The airport handles as many as 48 flights every week up from the occasional, intermittent ones some years ago. thumb

By rail

Direct train service is available for other major cities like Mumbai, Calcutta, Chennai, Patna, Guwahati, Pune, Haridwar, Varanasi, Jaipur and Jammu Tawi. Some prestigious trains that halt in Jalandhar City railway station are Howrah Mail, Golden Temple Mail (Frontier Mail), New-Delhi Amritsar Shatabdi Express, Paschim Express. Now many trains of Jammu route are extended up to Mata Vaishno Devi-Katra.

Jalandhar City Railway Station is well-connected to other parts of the country, Jalandhar City is a major stop between the Amritsar-Delhi rail link which is serviced by Shatabdi Express, Intercity Express, and others

Direct Service to major cities such as Mumbai, Calcutta, Chennai, Patna, Guwahati, Pune, Haridwar, Varanasi, Jaipur and Jammu Tawi are available. There are prestigious services such as the Howrah Mail, Golden Temple Mail (Frontier Mail), New-Delhi Amritsar Shatabdi Express, Paschim Express.

By road

There is one of the largest network of bus services of Punjab at Shaheed-e-Azam Sardar Bhagat Singh ISBT(JALANDHAR), Himachal, Delhi, Haryana, Pepsu, Chandigarh, Uttar Pradesh, Himachal Pradesh, Jammu & Kashmir, Uttrakhand, Rajasthan State Roadways, apart from private operators.

Commerce



Religious places



Famous Religious places of worship
  • Akshardham Mandir Guru Gobind Singh Avenue
  • Arya samaj mandir, Basti Danishmanda
  • Baba Khaki Shah (Khurla Kingra)
  • Baba Lal dayal Mandir, Basti Guzan
  • Baba Lal dayal Mandir, Partapbagh
  • Chishti Qadri Darbar Hazrat Ghous Pak Ji Peeran De Peer
  • Church of North India (CNI) Mission Compound
  • Darbaar Panj Peer Ji (Near Ravidas Chowk)
  • Darbar Baba Peer Phalai Wala Ji
  • Darbar Baba Sunehri Sai Ji (Abadi Jallowal)
  • Darbar Peer Sakhi Sultan
  • Darbar Sachi Sarkar Lakha Da (Bootan Mandi, Jalandhar-Nakodar Road)
  • Darbar Sajjad Peer Warish Shah Ji (Hardyal Nagar)
  • Durga Mandir Near Ambedkar Chowk, Avtar Nagar
  • Durga Shakti Mandir (Deol Nagar)
  • Ebenezer Assembly of God Church (English/Hindi Services)
  • Geeta Mandir Adarsh Nagar
  • Geeta mandir Model town
  • Geeta mandir, Central Town
  • Gurduwara Thra Sahib (Hazara Village)
  • Gurdwara Chhevin Pathshahi
  • Gurdwara Panj Tirth Sahib (Jandu Singha)
  • Guru Ravidass Dham (Bootan Mandi)
  • Gurdwara Guru Tegh Bahadur Nagar
  • Gurudwara Asapuran (Tagore nagar)
  • Gurudwara Kakipind Rama mandi
  • Gurudwara Makhdoompura
  • Gurudwara Nauwi Patshahi
  • Gurudwara Singh Sabha (Jalandhar Cantt)
  • Gurudwara Singh Sabha-Model Town
  • Gurudwara Talhan Sahib
  • Hanuman garhi mandir jaggu chowk
  • Hanuman Mandir, ali mohalla
  • Imam Nasir Mausoleum and Jamma Masjid
  • Jama Masjid asgar Hussain Muslim colony Jaimal Nagar
  • Jama Masjid Imam Nasir Gud Mandi chowk
  • Kali Mata Mandir Mahaver marg
  • Masjid Dakoha Talhaan Rd Kaki Pind
  • Masjid Umme Salmaa (Bootan Mandi)
  • Mata Chintapurni Mandir
  • Mata Rani Temple
  • Mata Vaishno Devi Mandir
  • Mayaan da Gurudwara (Jalandhar Cantt)
  • Om Divya Prem Mandir, Danishmanda
  • Panch Mukhi Shiv Mandir
  • Panchvati Temple
  • Radha Soami Satsang Beas,(Mission Compound Jalandhar)
  • Radhye sham Mandir &dharamshala
  • Raghuth Mandir
  • Ram Mandir, Pucca bagh
  • Sanatan Daram Mandir
  • Sankat Mochan Hanuman Mandir (phillar tehsil)
  • Sati Mata Mandir
  • Sati Virinda Devi
  • Satya rayan Mandir
  • Shiv Bari Mandir
  • Shiv Mandir
  • Shree Guru Ravidass Mandir (New), Basti Danishmanda
  • Shree Guru Ravidass mandir(old), near Peelee kothi basti danishmanda
  • Shri Ayyapa Mandir
  • Shri Baba Balak nath Ji Mandir
  • Shri Balmiki Mandir
  • Shri Dasjee Guru Mandir
  • Shri Devi Talab Mandir
  • Shri Mahalakshmi Mandir
  • Shri Mukteshwar Mandir, Basti Guzan
  • Shri Pramhans Adhiwait Mandir
  • Shri Ram Sarovar Mandir
  • Shri Siddh Baba Sodal
  • Shri Sidh Baba Keshav Nath Mandir (Jathere), Guru Ram Dass Enclave
  • Sree Ayyappa Mandir, Guru Gobind Singh Avenue
  • St Mary's Cathedral Church (Jalandhar Cantt)
  • Tulsi Mandir
  • Tripurmalni Mata Mandir
  • Viyak Mandir
  • Yogeshwer Dham Mandir

    Leisure

  • Pushpa Gujral Science City
  • Company Bagh
  • Niku Park, Model Town
  • Model Town Market
  • Wonder Land
  • Adarsh Nagar Park
  • Saraswati Vihar
  • PVR, MBD Neopolis, BMC Chowk
  • Big Bazaar, Vasal Tower
  • PVR, Curo Highstreet
  • Jyoti Market
  • Jang-e-Azadi Memorial Museum at kartarpur
  • Viva Collage
  • LPU Mart
  • Rangla Punjab
  • The Regent Park Hotel
  • Curo High Street Mall

    Media

    Doordarshan Kendra, Jalandhar is an Indian television station in Jalandhar, owned and operated by state-owned Doordarshan, the television network of Prasar Bharati (Broadcasting Corporation of India). It was established in 1979 and produces and broadcasts the 24-hour Punjabi language TV channel, DD Punjabi, which was launched in 1998 and covers most of the state of Punjab, India.

    The city is the region's headquarters for newspapers, national television and radio stations. These include Daily Ajit, Jagbani, Punjab Kesari, Dainik Bhaskar, Dainik Jagran, Hindustan Times, The Tribune, Hind Samachar, etc. http://bbcnews7.com

    State-owned All India Radio has a local station in Jalandhar that transmits programs of mass interest. FM local radio stations include:

  • Radio city 91.9 MHz
  • BIG FM 92.7 92.7 MHz
  • 94.3 FM-My Fm- 94.3 MHz
  • Radio Mirchi 98.3 MHz
  • All India Radio 102.7 MHz

    Healthcare

    There are excellent medical facilities in Jalandhar which include treatment centers and specialist hospitals. The Municipal Corporation of Jalandhar claims that the city has over 423 hospitals, a claim that would make it the city with the highest number of hospitals in South Asia.

    Sports

    Cricket

    Cricket is very popular in grounds and streets of the city. There is an international-standard stadium at Burlton Park. The Indian cricket team played a Test Match against the Pakistan cricket team on this ground on 24 September 1983.

    Kabaddi

    Major Kabaddi matches are usually held at Guru Gobind Singh Stadium.

    Guru Gobind Singh Stadium

    Guru Gobind Singh Stadium is a multi-purpose stadium in Jalandhar. It is usually used mostly for football matches and is the home stadium of JCT Mills Football Club. People can be seen jogging, playing soccer, weight-lifting, etc. in the stadium most of the time. The Punjab government has started new projects at the stadium.

    Surjit Hockey Stadium

    Surjeet Hockey Stadium is a field hockey stadium in Jalandhar, Punjab, India. It is named after Jalandhar-born Olympian Surjit Singh. This stadium is home of the franchise Sher-e-Punjab of the World Series Hockey.

    Sports college

    There is a Government Sports College in the city and it is a focus for many of the National Sports Councils. In this college, many sports are played like cricket, hockey, swimming, volleyball, basketball, etc.

    Education



    Higher education institutions include

    Universities



  • Apeejay Institute of Management Technical Campus, Jalandhar (Punjab)
  • DAV Institute of Engineering & Technology
  • DAV University
  • Doaba College
  • GNA University
  • Guru Nanak Dev University Regional Campus
  • Lovely Professional University
  • Lyallpur Khalsa College for Women
  • Lyallpur Khalsa College
  • Khalsa College
  • Mata Gujri Institute of Nursing
  • Mehr Chand Polytechnic College
  • NIT Jalandhar
  • Punjab Institute of Medical Sciences
  • Punjab Technical University

    Schools



  • A N Gurral Memorial High School
  • Academic Heights Public School
  • Apeejay School, Mahavir Marg
  • Apeejay School, Rama Mandi
  • Army Public School, Jalandhar Cantt.
  • B R S Public School
  • British Olivia School
  • BSF senior secondary school
  • Cambridge International School (co-ed, girls, IB)
  • CT Public School
  • Daffodils Kindergarten & Convent School
  • Dayanand Model School, Model Town
  • Dayanand Model sr. sc. School
  • Delhi Public School
  • Guru Amar Dass Public School
  • Innocent Hearts School
  • IVY world school
  • Jullundur Model Senior Secondary School, Tanda Road
  • Kendriya Vidyalaya No.1, Jalandhar Cantt.
  • Kendriya Vidyalaya No.2, Jalandhar Cantt.
  • Kendriya Vidyalaya No.3, Jalandhar Cantt.
  • Kendriya Vidyalaya No.4, Jalandhar Cantt.
  • Lawrence International School
  • M.G.N. Public School
  • Mayor World School
  • Model Senior Secondary School
  • Montgomery Guru Nanak Public School, Adarsh Nagar
  • Montgomery Guru Nanak Public School, Urban Estate, Phase 2
  • Police DAV Public School
  • Rabindra Day Boarding Senior Secondary Public School
  • Sanskriti K.M.V. School, Tanda Road (awarded by British council)
  • SD Model School Jalandhar Cantt
  • Seventh Day Adventist Senior Secondary School
  • Shiv Jyoti Public School
  • St. Joseph's Boys School
  • St. Joseph's Convent Junior School
  • St. Joseph's Convent School (Girls), Jalandhar Canty
  • Swami Sant Dass Public School

    Jalandhar Cantonment

    Notable people