Giraut de Bornelh
Giraut de Bornelh
(; c. 1138 – 1215), whose first name is also spelled Guiraut
and whose toponym
as de Borneil
or de Borneyll
, was a troubadour
connected to the castle of the viscount of Limoges
. He is credited with the formalisation, if not the invention, of the "light" style, or trobar leu
Giraut was born to a lower-class family in the Limousin
, probably in Bourney
, near Excideuil
in modern-day France
Guiraut might have accompanied Richard I of England
and Aimar V of Limoges
on the Third Crusade
and stayed a while with the "good prince of Antioch
", Bohemond III
. He certainly made a pilgrimage to the Holy Land
, but perhaps before the Crusade.
About ninety of Giraut's poems and four of his melodies survive; these were held in high esteem in the 13th century: Petrarch
called him "master of the troubadours", while Dante
, who preferred Arnaut Daniel
, mentions that many considered him superior.
Notable pieces include:
[http://www.trobar.org/troubadours/giraut_de_bornelh/poem76.php S'anc jorn aqui joi e solaz], a planh about the death of Raimbaut d'Aurenga.
[http://www.trobar.org/troubadours/aurenga/aa31.php Ara·m platz, Giraut de Borneill], a tenso with Raimbaut d'Aurenga discussing trobar clus versus trobar leu.
[http://www.trobar.org/troubadours/giraut_de_bornelh/poem59.php Be me plairia, senh'en reis], a tenso with king Alfons II of Aragon Giraut contributes to the poetical debate as to whether a lady is dishonoured by taking a lover who is richer than herself. This debate was begun by Guilhem de Saint-Leidier, taken up by Azalais de Porcairagues and Raimbaut d'Aurenga, and continued in a partimen between Dalfi d'Alvernha and Perdigon.
[http://www.trobar.org/troubadours/giraut_de_bornelh/poem54.php Reis glorios (glorious king)], a well-known alba
BibliographySharman, Ruth V. (1989). The Cansos and Sirventes of the Troubadour Giraut de Borneil. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. .