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Cadence

{{Image frame|content= { ew PianoStaff << ew Staff << ew Voice elative c'' { stemUp clef treble key c major ime 4/4 d2 b c1 } ew Voice elative c' { stemDown f2 d e1 } >> ew Staff << ew Voice elative c' { stemUp clef bass key c major a2 g g1 } ew Voice elative c { stemDown d2 g, c1 ar "||" } >> >> } |width=300|caption=Perfect authentic cadence (V–I with roots in the bass parts and tonic in the highest voice of the final chord): ii–V–I progression in C major, four-part harmony (Benward & Saker 2003, p. 90).}}In Western musical theory, a cadence (Latin cadentia, "a falling") is "a melodic or harmonic configuration that creates a sense of resolution [finality or pause]." A harmonic cadence is a progression of (at least) two chords that concludes a phrase, section, or piece of music. A rhythmic cadence is a characteristic rhythmic pattern that indicates the end of a phrase.

A cadence is labeled more or less "weak" or "strong" depending on its sense of finality. While cadences are usually classified by specific chord or melodic progressions, the use of such progressions does not necessarily constitute a cadence—there must be a sense of closure, as at the end of a phrase. Harmonic rhythm plays an important part in determining where a cadence occurs.

Cadences are strong indicators of the tonic or central pitch of a passage or piece. Edward Lowinsky proposed that the cadence was the "cradle of tonality".

Common classifications

In music of the common practice period, cadences are divided into four main types, according to their harmonic progression: authentic (typically perfect authentic or imperfect authentic), half, plagal, and deceptive. Typically, phrases end on authentic or half cadences, and the terms plagal and deceptive refer to motion that avoids or follows a phrase-ending cadence. Each cadence can be described using the Roman numeral system of naming chords.

Authentic cadence

An authentic cadence is a cadence from V to I (i.e. dominant to tonic). A seventh above the root is often added to create V, and the V is often preceded by a Cadential six-four|cadential chord. The Harvard Concise Dictionary of Music and Musicians says, "This cadence is a microcosm of the tonal system, and is the most direct means of establishing a pitch as tonic. It is virtually obligatory as the final structural cadence of a tonal work." Authentic cadences are generally classified as either perfect or imperfect. The phrase perfect cadence is sometimes used as a synonym for authentic cadence but can also have a more precise meaning depending on the chord voicing.

Perfect authentic cadence

{{Image frame|content= { override Score.SpacingSpanner.strict-note-spacing = ##t set Score.proportionalNotationDuration = #(ly:make-moment 1/8) ew PianoStaff << ew Staff << elative c'' { clef treble key c minor ime 4/4 c4-. d-.(f rill grace {c16 d} es4-.) -. } >> ew Staff << elative c' { clef bass key c minor ime 4/4 c4-. -. -. -. } >> >> } |width=300|caption=A perfect authentic cadence in Beethoven's Piano Sonata No. 8, mvmt. III, mm. 16–17.}}In a perfect authentic cadence (PAC), the chords are in root position – that is, the roots of both chords are in the bass – and the tonic is in the highest voice of the final chord. This is generally considered the strongest type of cadence and often found at structurally defining moments. Music theorist William Caplin writes that the perfect authentic cadence "achieves complete harmonic and melodic closure." : ew PianoStaff << ew Staff << ew Voice elative c'' { stemUp clef treble key c major ime 4/4 b1 c } ew Voice elative c'' { stemDown g1 g } >> ew Staff << ew Voice elative c' { stemUp clef bass key c major ime 4/4 d1 e } ew Voice elative c' { stemDown g1 c, ar "||" } >> >>

Imperfect authentic cadence



There are three distinct types of imperfect authentic cadences (IAC):

  • Root position IAC (shown below): Similar to a perfect authentic cadence, but the highest voice is not the tonic.
  • Inverted IAC: Similar to a perfect authentic cadence, but one or both chords are inverted.

  • Leading-tone IAC: The V chord is replaced with the vii chord (but the cadence still ends on I).

    : ew PianoStaff << ew Staff << ew Voice elative c'' { stemUp clef treble key c major ime 4/4 d1 e } ew Voice elative c'' { stemDown g1 g } >> ew Staff << ew Voice elative c' { stemUp clef bass key c major ime 4/4 b1 c } ew Voice elative c' { stemDown g1 c, ar "||" } >> >>

    Evaded cadence



    An evaded cadence goes from V to I. Because the seventh must fall stepwise, it forces the cadence to resolve to the less stable first inversion chord. To achieve this, a root position V usually changes to a V right before resolution, thereby "evading" the cadence. (See also inverted cadence below.) : ew PianoStaff << ew Staff << ew Voice elative c'' { stemUp clef treble key c major ime 4/4 b1 c1 } ew Voice elative c'' { stemDown g1 g1 } >> ew Staff << ew Voice elative c' { stemUp clef bass key c major ime 4/4 d1 c1 } ew Voice elative c' { stemDown g2 f e1 ar "||" } >> >>

    Half cadence

    A half cadence (also called an imperfect cadence or semicadence) is any cadence ending on V, whether preceded by II (V of V), ii, vi, IV, or I—or any other chord. Because it sounds incomplete or suspended, the half cadence is considered a weak cadence that calls for continuation.

    : ew PianoStaff << ew Staff << ew Voice elative c'' { stemUp clef treble key c major ime 4/4 c1 b } ew Voice elative c'' { stemDown g1 g } >> ew Staff << ew Voice elative c' { stemUp clef bass key c major ime 4/4 e1 d } ew Voice elative c { stemDown c1 g' ar "||" } >> >>

    Several types of half cadences are described below.

    Phrygian half cadence

    {{Image frame|content= { ew PianoStaff << ew Staff << ew Voice elative c'' { stemUp clef treble key e minor ime 4/4 partial4 a4 b8 a g4 fis e8 fis g4 a b fermata } ew Voice elative c' { stemDown partial4 d4 d8 dis e4 dis e8 dis e[ g] fis e dis4 } addlyrics { Lord, with _ Thy grace my _ soul _ re - fresh! } >> ew Staff << ew Voice elative c' { stemUp clef bass key e minor ime 4/4 partial4 a g8 a b4 b b8 a b4 c fis, } ew Voice elative c { stemDown partial4 fis4 g8 fis e4 b'8[ a] g fis e d c4 b_fermata } >> >> } |width=420|caption=A Phrygian half cadence in Bach's four-part chorale, Schau, lieber Gott, wie meine Feind}}A Phrygian half cadence is a half cadence iv–V in minor, so named because the semitonal motion in the bass (sixth degree to fifth degree) resembles the half-step heard in the ii–I of the 15th-century cadence in the Phrygian mode. Due to its being a survival from modal Renaissance harmony this cadence gives an archaic sound, especially when preceded by v (v–iv–V). A characteristic gesture in Baroque music, the Phrygian cadence often concluded a slow movement immediately followed by a faster one. With the addition of motion in the upper part to the sixth degree, it becomes the Landini cadence. : ew PianoStaff << ew Staff << ew Voice elative c' { stemUp clef treble key c minor ime 4/4 f1 g } ew Voice elative c' { stemDown c1 d } >> ew Staff << ew Voice elative c' { stemUp clef bass key c minor ime 4/4 c1 b } ew Voice elative c' { stemDown aes1 g ar "||" } >> >>

    Lydian cadence

    A Lydian cadence is similar to the Phrygian half cadence, involving iv–V in the minor. The difference is that in the Lydian cadence, the whole iv is raised by a half step. In other words, the Phrygian half cadence begins with the first chord built on scale degree , while the Lydian half cadence is built on the scale degree .

    : ew PianoStaff << ew Staff << ew Voice elative c' { stemUp clef treble key c minor ime 4/4 fis1 g } ew Voice elative c' { stemDown cis1 d } >> ew Staff << ew Voice elative c' { stemUp clef bass key c minor ime 4/4 cis1 b } ew Voice elative c' { stemDown a1 g ar "||" } >> >>

    Burgundian cadences

    Burgundian cadences became popular in Burgundian music. Note the parallel fourths between the upper voices. : ew PianoStaff << ew Staff << ew Voice elative c' { stemUp clef treble key c major ime 4/4 fis1 g } ew Voice elative c' { stemDown c1 d } >> ew Staff << ew Voice elative c' { clef bass key c major ime 4/4 a1 g } >> >>

    Plagal half cadence



    The rare plagal half cadence involves a IV–I progression. Like an authentic cadence (V–I), the plagal half cadence involves an ascending fifth (or, by inversion, a descending fourth). The plagal half cadence is a weak cadence, ordinarily at the ending of an antecedent phrase, after which a consequent phrase commences. One example of this use is in "Auld Lang Syne". But in one very unusual occurrence – the end of the exposition of the first movement of Brahms' Clarinet Trio, Op. 114—it is used to complete not just a musical phrase but an entire section of a movement.

    Plagal cadence



    A plagal cadence is a cadence from IV to I. It is also known as the Amen cadence because of its frequent setting to the text "Amen" in hymns.

    : ew PianoStaff << ew Staff << ew Voice elative c'' { stemUp clef treble key c major ime 4/4 c1 c } ew Voice elative c'' { stemDown a1 g } >> ew Staff << ew Voice elative c' { stemUp clef bass key c major ime 4/4 c1 e } ew Voice elative c { stemDown f1 c' ar "||" } >> >>

    William Caplin disputes the existence of plagal cadences in music of the classical era:

    An examination of the classical repertory reveals that such a cadence rarely exists. ... Inasmuch as the progression IV–I cannot confirm a tonality (it lacks any leading-tone resolution), it cannot articulate formal closure .... Rather, this progression is normally part of a tonic prolongation serving a variety of formal functions – not, however a cadential one. Most examples of plagal cadences given in textbooks actually represent a postcadential codetta function: that is, the IV–I progression follows an authentic cadence but does not itself create genuine cadential closure.


    It may be noticed that the plagal cadence, "leaves open the possibility of interpretation as V–I–V" rather than I–IV–I. The term "minor plagal cadence" is used to refer to the iv–I progression. Sometimes a combination of major and minor plagal cadence is used (IV–iv–I)

    Deceptive cadence



    {{Image frame|content= { ew PianoStaff << ew Staff << elative c'' { empo "Andante cantabile" clef treble key f major ime 3/4 partial4. c8-.(_markup { italic dolce } c-. c-.) c8.[ grace { d32^( c b c } f16)] c8-. a( c e,) g4( f8) } >> ew Staff << ew Voice elative c { clef bass key f major ime 3/4 partial4. r8 r4 2 4 stemUp bes'^( a8) } ew Voice elative c { stemDown partial4. s8 s4 s2. d4. } >> >> } |width=350|caption=A deceptive cadence in the second movement of Mozart's Piano Sonata No. 10}}“A cadence is called ‘interrupted’, ‘deceptive’ or ‘false’ where the penultimate, dominant chord is followed not by the expected tonic, but by another one, often the submediant.”. This is the most important irregular resolution, most commonly V–vi (or V–VI) in major or V–VI in minor. This is considered a weak cadence because of the "hanging" (suspended) feeling it invokes.

    : ew PianoStaff << ew Staff << ew Voice elative c'' { stemUp clef treble key c major ime 4/4 b1 c } ew Voice elative c'' { stemDown g1 e } >> ew Staff << ew Voice elative c' { stemUp clef bass key c major ime 4/4 d1 c } ew Voice elative c' { stemDown g1 a ar "||" } >> >>

    At the beginning of the final movement of Gustav Mahler's 9th Symphony, the listener hears a string of many deceptive cadences progressing from V to IV.

    One of the most striking uses of this cadence is in the A-minor section at the end of the exposition in the first movement of Brahms' Third Symphony. The music progresses to an implied E minor dominant (B) with a rapid chromatic scale upwards but suddenly sidesteps to C major. The same device is used again in the recapitulation; this time the sidestep is—as one would expect—to F major, the tonic key of the whole Symphony.

    The interrupted cadence is also frequently used in popular music. For example, the Pink Floyd song "Bring the Boys Back Home" ends with such a cadence (at approximately 0:45–50).

    Other classifications



    Inverted cadence

    An inverted cadence (also called a medial cadence) inverts the last chord. It may be restricted only to the perfect and imperfect cadence, or only to the perfect cadence, or it may apply to cadences of all types. To distinguish them from this form, the other, more common forms of cadences listed above are known as radical cadences.

    Rhythmic classifications



    Cadences can also be classified by their rhythmic position:

  • A metrically accented cadence occurs on a strong position, typically the downbeat of a measure.
  • A metrically unaccented cadence occurs in a metrically weak position, for instance, after a long appoggiatura.

    Metrically accented cadences are considered stronger and are generally of greater structural significance. In the past, the terms masculine and feminine were sometimes used to describe rhythmically "strong" or "weak" cadences, but this terminology is no longer acceptable to some. Susan McClary has written extensively on the gendered terminology of music and music theory in her book Feminine Endings.

    The example below shows a metrically unaccented cadence (IV–V–I). The final chord is postponed to fall on a weak beat.

    : ew PianoStaff << ew Staff << ew Voice elative c'' { stemUp clef treble key c major ime 4/4 c2 b^~ b4 c2. } ew Voice elative c' { stemDown f2 d_~ d4 e2. } >> ew Staff << ew Voice elative c' { stemUp clef bass key c major ime 4/4 a2 g^~ g4 g2. } ew Voice elative c, { stemDown f2 g_~ g4 c2. ar "||" } >> >>

    Picardy third

    A Picardy third (or Picardy cadence) is a harmonic device that originated in Western music in the Renaissance era. It refers to the use of a major chord of the tonic at the end of a musical section that is either modal or in a minor key. The example below shows a picardy third in J.S. Bach's Jesu, meine Freude (Jesus, My Joy), mm. 12–13.

    : ew PianoStaff << ew Staff << ew Voice elative c'' { stemUp clef treble key e minor ime 4/4 partial2 b4 b a g fis2 e1 } ew Voice elative c' { stemDown partial2 e4 e8 dis e fis g e e4 dis b1 } >> ew Staff << ew Voice elative c' { stemUp clef bass key e minor ime 4/4 partial2 g8 a b4 c b cis b8 a! gis1 } ew Voice elative c { stemDown partial2 e8 fis g e c d e c ais4 b e,1 } >> >>

    Upper leading-tone cadence

    The example below shows a cadence featuring an upper leading-tone from a well-known 16th-century lamentation, the debate over which was documented in Rome c.1540. The final three written notes in the upper voice are B–C–D, in which case a trill on C produces D. However, convention implied a C, and a cadential trill of a whole tone on the second to last note produces D/E, the upper leading-tone of D. Presumably, the debate was over whether to use C–D or C–D for the trill. ( )

    : { << ew StaffGroup << ew Staff << clef treble ime 2/2 elative c' { clef treble ime 2/2 e2 f2~ f4 e d2~ d4 once set suggestAccidentals = ##t cis8 b once set suggestAccidentals = ##t cis!2 d1fermata } >> ew Staff << clef treble ime 2/2 ew Voice elative c' { r2 a f g a1 a1fermata } >> ew Staff << clef bass ime 2/2 ew Voice elative c' { a1 d, e dfermata } >> ew Staff << clef bass ime 2/2 ew Voice elative c { a1 bes a dfermata ar "|." } >> >> >> }

    In medieval and Renaissance polyphony

    Medieval and Renaissance cadences are based upon dyads rather than chords. The first theoretical mention of cadences comes from Guido of Arezzo's description of the occursus in his Micrologus, where he uses the term to mean where the two lines of a two-part polyphonic phrase end in a unison.

    Clausula vera

    {{Image frame|content= { << ew StaffGroup << ew Staff << set Staff.midiInstrument = #"voice oohs" clef treble ime 4/2 elative c'' { clef treble ime 4/2 c4 a d1 cis2 dreve } >> ew Staff << set Staff.midiInstrument = #"voice oohs" clef treble ime 4/2 ew Voice elative c' { f2 e4 d e2 e dreve ar "|." } >> >> >> } |width=300|caption=A clausula vera cadence from Lassus's Beatus homo, mm. 34–35. }}

    A clausula or clausula vera ("true close") is a dyadic or intervallic, rather than chordal or harmonic, cadence. In a clausula vera, two voices approach an octave or unison through stepwise motion in contrary motion.

    : { << ew StaffGroup << ew Staff << clef treble ime 4/4 elative c'' { clef treble ime 4/4 b1 c } >> ew Staff << clef treble ime 4/4 ew Voice elative c' { d1 c ar "||" } >> >> >> } {{Image frame|content= { override Score.SpacingSpanner.strict-note-spacing = ##t set Score.proportionalNotationDuration = #(ly:make-moment 1/2) << ew StaffGroup << ew Staff << set Score.tempoHideNote = ##t empo 2 = 60 set Staff.midiInstrument = #"voice oohs" clef treble ime 4/2 elative c'' { clef treble ime 4/2 key g dorian bes4 a g1 fis2 greve } >> ew Staff << set Staff.midiInstrument = #"voice oohs" clef "treble_8" ime 4/2 key g dorian ew Voice elative c' { g1 a greve } >> ew Staff << set Staff.midiInstrument = #"voice oohs" clef bass ime 4/2 key g dorian ew Voice elative c { es1 d g,reve ar "|." } >> >> >> } |width=340|caption=A three-voice clausula vera from Palestrina's Magnificat Secundi Toni: Deposuit potentes, mm. 27–28.}}

    In three voices, the third voice often adds a falling fifth creating a cadence similar to the authentic cadence in tonal music.

    : { << ew StaffGroup << ew Staff << clef treble ime 4/4 elative c'' { clef treble ime 4/4 b1 c } >> ew Staff << clef treble ime 4/4 elative c' { d1 c } >> ew Staff << clef bass ime 4/4 elative c' { g1 c, ar "||" } >> >> >> }

    According to Carl Dahlhaus, "as late as the 13th century the half step was experienced as a problematic interval not easily understood, as the remainder between the perfect fourth and the ditone:

    :frac{frac43}{left(frac98 ight)^2} = frac{256}{243} In a melodic half step, listeners of the time perceived no tendency of the lower tone toward the upper, or the upper toward the lower. The second tone was not the 'goal' of the first. Instead, musicians avoided the half step in clausulas because, to their ears, it lacked clarity as an interval. Beginning in the 13th century, cadences begin to require motion in one voice by half step and the other a whole step in contrary motion.

    Plagal cadence

    A plagal cadence was found occasionally as an interior cadence, with the lower voice in two-part writing moving up a perfect fifth or down a perfect fourth.

    : { << ew StaffGroup << ew Staff << clef treble ime 4/4 elative c'' { clef treble ime 4/4 e1 d } >> ew Staff << clef treble ime 4/4 ew Voice elative c' { c1 g' ar "||" } >> >> >> }

    Pause

    A pause in one voice may also be used as a weak interior cadence. The example below, Lassus's Qui vult venire post me, mm. 3–5, shows a pause in the third measure.

    : { << ew StaffGroup << ew Staff << set Score.tempoHideNote = ##t empo 2 = 66 set Staff.midiInstrument = #"voice oohs" clef treble ime 4/2 elative c' { clef "treble_8" ime 4/2 key g dorian r2 g a1 bes c bes r2 c } addlyrics { ve -- ni -- re post me, ve -- } >> ew Staff << set Staff.midiInstrument = #"voice oohs" clef bass ime 4/2 key g dorian ew Voice elative c { e1 f g f r2 g a1 } addlyrics { ni -- re post me, ve -- ni -- } >> >> >> }

    Evaded cadence

    In counterpoint, an evaded cadence is one where one of the voices in a suspension does not resolve as expected, and the voices together resolved to a consonance other than an octave or unison (a perfect fifth, a sixth, or a third).

    Corelli cadence

    The Corelli cadence, or Corelli clash, named for its association with the violin music of the Corelli school, is a cadence characterized by a major and/or minor second clash between the tonic and the leading-tone or the tonic and supertonic. An example is shown below.

    : ew PianoStaff << ew Staff << set Score.tempoHideNote = ##t empo 4 = 72 set Staff.midiInstrument = #"voice oohs" ew Voice elative c'' { stemUp clef treble key a minor ime 3/4 c4 b4. a8 a2. } ew Voice elative c'' { stemDown a4 a4. gis8 a2. } >> ew Staff << ew Voice elative c' { set Staff.midiInstrument = #"voice oohs" clef bass key a minor ime 3/4 c8 d e4 e, a2. } >> >>

    English cadence

    Another "clash cadence", the English cadence, is a contrapuntal pattern particular to the authentic or perfect cadence. It features the blue seventh against the dominant chord, which in the key of C would be B and G–B–D. Popular with English composers of the High Renaissance and Restoration periods in the 16th and 17th centuries, the English cadence is described as archaic or old-fashioned sounding. It was first given its name in the 20th century.

    The hallmark of this device is the dissonant augmented octave (compound augmented unison) produced by a false relation between the split seventh scale degree, as shown below in an excerpt from O sacrum convivium by Thomas Tallis. The courtesy accidental on the tenor's G is editorial.

    : { #(set-global-staff-size 18) override Score.SpacingSpanner.strict-note-spacing = ##t set Score.proportionalNotationDuration = #(ly:make-moment 1/16) << ew StaffGroup << ew Staff << set Score.tempoHideNote = ##t empo 4 = 72 set Staff.midiInstrument = #"voice oohs" clef treble ime 4/4 elative c' { clef treble ime 4/4 f8 e a2 once override NoteHead.color = #red gis4 a1 } addlyrics { (su) -- _ _ mi -- tur, } >> ew Staff << set Staff.midiInstrument = #"voice oohs" clef treble ime 4/4 ew Voice elative c' { d4. c8 b4 b a1 } addlyrics { su -- _ _ mi -- tur, } >> ew Staff << set Staff.midiInstrument = #"voice oohs" clef treble ime 4/4 ew Voice elative c' { f4 f e4. d8 cis2. e4 } addlyrics { Chri -- stus su -- mi -- tur, re- } >> ew Staff << set Staff.midiInstrument = #"voice oohs" clef "treble_8" ime 4/4 ew Voice elative c' { a4 f once override NoteHead.color = #red g?4. f8 e1 } addlyrics { su -- _ _ mi -- tur, } >> ew Staff << clef bass ime 4/4 ew Voice elative c { d4 d e e a,1 } addlyrics { Chri -- stus su -- mi -- tur, } >> >> >> }

    Landini cadence

    A Landini cadence (also known as a Landini sixth, Landini sixth cadence, or under-third cadence) is a cadence that was used extensively in the 14th and early 15th century. It is named after Francesco Landini, a composer who used them profusely. Similar to a clausula vera, it includes an escape tone in the upper voice, which briefly narrows the interval to a perfect fifth before the octave.

    : { << ew StaffGroup << ew Staff << clef treble ime 4/4 elative c'' { clef treble ime 4/4 b2 a c1 } >> ew Staff << clef treble ime 4/4 ew Voice elative c' { d1 c ar "||" } >> >> >> }

    Common Practice Period

    The classical and romantic periods of musical history provide many examples of the way the different cadences are used in context.

    Authentic cadences and half cadences

    Mozart’s Romanze from his Piano Concerto No. 20 follows a familiar pattern of a pair of phrases, one ending with a half (imperfect) cadence and the other with an authentic (perfect) cadence:The presto movement from Beethoven’s String Quartet Op 130 follows the same pattern, but in a minor key:

    Plagal Cadences

    The Hallelujah Chorus from Handel’s Messiah culminates powerfully with an iterated plagal cadence:Debussy’s prelude ‘La Fille aux Cheveux de Lin’ opens with a plagal cadence: One of the most famous endings in all music is found in the concluding bars of Wagner’s opera Tristan und Isolde, where the dissonant chord in the opening phrase of the opera is finally resolved "three enormous acts and five hours later" in the form of a plagal cadence:

    Deceptive Cadences

    In Bach’s harmonization of the choraleWachet auf’, a phrase ending in a deceptive cadence repeats with the cadence changed to an authentic one: The exposition of the first movement of Beethoven’s Piano Sonata No. 21 (The Waldstein Sonata), Op. 53 features a minor key passage where an authentic (perfect) cadence precedes a deceptive (interrupted) one:Debussy’s Prelude “La fille aux cheveux de lin” (see also above) concludes with a passage featuring a deceptive (interrupted) cadence that progresses, not from V-VI, but from V-IV:Some varieties of deceptive cadence that go beyond the usual V-VI pattern lead to some startling effects. For example, a particularly dramatic and abrupt deceptive cadence occurs in the second Presto movement of Beethoven’s Piano Sonata No. 30, Op. 109, bars 97-112, “a striking passage that used to pre-occupy [music] theorists.” The music at this point is in B minor, and carries the expectation is that the Chord of F sharp (Chord V) will be followed by the tonic chord of B. However, “Dynamics become softer and softer; dominant and tonic chords of B minor appear isolated on the first beat of a bar, separated by silences: until in sudden fortissimo…the recapitulation bursts on us in the tonic E minor, the B minor dominants left unresolved.” An equally startling example occurs in J.S. Bach’s Toccata and Fugue in F major, BWV 540: According to Richard Taruskin, in this Toccata, “the already much-delayed resolution is thwarted (m204) by what was the most spectacular ‘deceptive cadence’ anyone had composed as of the second decade of the eighteenth century… producing an especially pungent effect.” Hermann Keller describes the effect of this cadence as follows: "the splendour of the end with the famous third inversion of the seventh chord, who would not be enthralled by that?"Chopin’s Fantaisie, Op. 49, composed over a century later in 1841, features a similar harmonic jolt:A deceptive cadence is a useful means for extending a musical narrative. In the closing passage of Bach’s Prelude in F minor from Book II of the Well-Tempered Clavier, the opening theme returns and seems headed towards a possible final resolution on an authentic (perfect) cadence. What the listener may expect is: Instead, at bar 60, Bach inserts a deceptive cadence (V-VI in F minor), leading to a lengthy digression of some dozen bars before reaching resolution on the final (V-I) cadence.

    Classical cadential trill



    In the Classical period, composers often drew out the authentic cadences at the ends of sections; the cadence's dominant chord might take up a measure or two, especially if it contained the resolution of a suspension remaining from the chord preceding the dominant. During these two measures, the solo instrument (in a concerto) often played a trill on the supertonic (the fifth of the dominant chord); although supertonic and subtonic trills had been common in the Baroque era, they usually lasted only a half measure.

    Extended cadential trills were by far most frequent in Mozart's music, and although they were also found in early Romantic music, their use was restricted chiefly to piano concerti (and to a lesser extent, violin concerti) because they were most easily played and most effective on the piano and violin; the cadential trill and resolution would be generally followed by an orchestral coda. Beethoven was a good example of this, limiting it almost entirely to his concerti, and most other Romantic composers including Chopin and Schumann followed suit; Schubert, who did not write any concerti, hardly used it at all (the Adagio and Rondo Concertante D. 487, a chamber work, being one prominent exception). At the other end of the spectrum, even Mozart rarely used the trill in symphonies. Because the music generally became louder and more dramatic leading up to it, a cadence was used for climactic effect, and was often embellished by Romantic composers. Later on in the Romantic era, however, other dramatic virtuosic movements were often used to close sections instead.

    Jazz

    In jazz, a cadence is often referred to as a turnaround, chord progressions that lead back and resolve to the tonic (for example, the ii-V-I turnaround). Turnarounds may be used at any point and not solely before the tonic.

    Half-step cadences are common in jazz if not cliché. For example, the ascending diminished seventh chord half-step cadence, which—using a secondary diminished seventh chord—creates momentum between two chords a major second apart (with the diminished seventh in between).

    : { elative c' { ime 4/4 1 ar "||" }

    }


    The descending diminished seventh chord half-step cadence is assisted by two common tones.

    : { elative c' { ime 4/4 1 ar "||" }

    }


    Rhythmic cadence

    Rhythmic cadences often feature a final note longer than the prevailing note values and this often follows a characteristic rhythmic pattern repeated at the end of the phrase. The example below shows a characteristic rhythmic cadence at the end of the first phrase of J.S. Bach's Brandenburg Concerto No. 3 in G major, BMV 1048, mvmt. I, mm. 1–2:

    : elative c'' { set Staff.midiInstrument = #"violin" clef treble ime 2/2 key g major set Score.tempoHideNote = ##t empo 4 = 96

    partial8 g16 fis 16 g8[ d16 c] d8[ g16 fis] g8[ b,16 a] b8[ g'16 fis] g8[ g,16 a] b8[ cis] d4 r }