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Altiplano–Puna volcanic complex

The Altiplano–Puna volcanic complex (), also known as APVC, is a complex of volcanic systems in the Puna of the Andes. It is located in the Altiplano area, a highland bounded by the Bolivian Cordillera Real in the east and by the main chain of the Andes, the Western Cordillera, in the west. It results from the subduction of the Nazca Plate beneath the South American Plate. Melts caused by subduction have generated the volcanoes of the Andean Volcanic Belt including the APVC. The volcanic province is located between 21° S–24° S latitude. The APVC spans the countries of Argentina, Bolivia and Chile.

In the MiocenePliocene (10-1 mya), calderas erupted felsic ignimbrites in four distinct pulses separated by periods of low levels of activity. At least three volcanic centres (Guacha caldera, La Pacana, Pastos Grandes, Vilama) had eruptions of a Volcanic Exposivity Index (VEI) of 8, as well as smaller scale eruptive centres. Activity waned after 2 mya, but present-day geothermal activity and volcanoes dated to the Holocene, as well as recent ground deformation at Uturunku volcano indicate still-extant present-day activity of the system.

Geography



The Andes mountain chain originated from the subduction of the Nazca Plate below the South American Plate and was accompanied by extensive volcanism. Between 14° S and 28° S lies one volcanic area with over fifty recently active systems, the Central Volcanic Zone (CVZ). Since the late Miocene between 21° S and 24° S a major ignimbrite province formed over 70 km}} thick crust, the Altiplano–Puna volcanic complex, between the Atacama and the Altiplano. The Toba volcanic system in Indonesia and Taupo in New Zealand are analogous to the province. The APVC is located in the southern Altiplano-Puna plateau, a surface plateau long at an altitude of high Ojos del Salado and from ten major systems, some active over millions of years and comparable to Yellowstone Caldera and Long Valley Caldera in the United States. The APVC is the largest ignimbrite province of the Neogene with a volume of at least . La Pacana is the largest single complex in the APVC with dimensions ) {{convert thick is assumed to host the APVC magma body. This body has a volume of about 480000 -. Other seismological data indicate a partial delamination of the crust under the Puna, resulting in increased volcanic activity and terrain height.

Subsystems



  • Aguas Calientes caldera ()
  • Alto de los Colorados ()
  • Cerro Bitiche
  • Cerro Blanco caldera ()
  • Cerro Chanka ()
  • Cerro Chao ()
  • Cerro Chascon ()
  • Cerro Chillahuita ()
  • Cerro Galán ()
  • Cerro Morado ()
  • Cerro Panizos ()
  • Chipas caldera
  • Coranzulí caldera ()
  • Delmedio ()
  • El Morro-Organullo
  • Granada complex ()
  • Guacha caldera ()
  • Kapina caldera ()
  • Laguna Amarga caldera ()
  • La Torta ()
  • La Pacana ()
  • Lascar
  • Negra Muerta volcanic complex ()
  • Pairique volcanic complex ()
  • Pastos Grandes
  • Pocitos ()
  • Purico Complex ()
  • Quevar ()
  • Rachaite complex ()
  • Rincon volcanic complex ()
  • Tastil volcano ()
  • El Tatio
  • TulTul ()
  • Uturuncu ()
  • Vallecito caldera ()
  • Vilama ()

    Ignimbrites

  • Abra Grande Ignimbrite, 6.8 mya.
  • Acay Ignimbrite, 9.5–9.9 mya.
  • Antofalla Ignimbrite, 11.4–9.6 mya.
  • Arco Jara Ignimbrite, 11.3 mya.
  • Artola/Mucar Ignimbrite, 9.4–10.6 mya.
  • Atana Ignimbrite, 4.11 mya.
  • Blanco Ignimbrite, .
  • Caspana Ignimbrite, 4.59–4.18 mya.
  • Cerro Blanco Ignimbrite, 0.5–0.2 mya.
  • Cerro Colorado, 9.5–9.8 mya.
  • Cerro Lucho lavas, 10.6 mya.
  • Cerro Panizos Ignimbrite, 6.7–6.8 mya.
  • Chuhuilla Ignimbrite, 5.45 mya.
  • Cienago Ignimbrite, 7.9 mya.
  • Cueva Negra/Leon Muerto Ignimbrites, 3.8–4.25 mya.
  • Cusi Cusi Ignimbrite, >10 mya.
  • Galan Ignimbrite, 2.1 mya.
  • Granada/Orosmayo/Pampa Barreno Ignimbrite, 10-10.5 mya.
  • Grenada Ignimbrite, 9.8 mya.
  • Guacha Ignimbrite, 5.6–5.7 mya.
  • Guaitiquina Ignimbrite, 5.07 mya.
  • Laguna Amarga Ignimbrite, 3.7–4.0, 5.0 mya.
  • Laguna Colorada Ignimbrite, 1.98 mya.
  • Laguna Verde Ignimbrite, 3.7–4.0 mya.
  • Las Termas Ignimbrite 1 and 2, 6.45 mya.
  • Los Colorados Ignimbrite, 7.5–7.9 mya.
  • Merihuaca Ignimbrites, 5.49–6.39 mya.
  • Morro I Ignimbrite, 12 mya.
  • Morro II Ignimbrite, 6 mya.
  • Pairique Chico block and ash, 10.4 mya.
  • Pampa Chamaca, 2.52 mya.
  • Pitas/Vega Real Grande Ignimbrites, 4.51–4.84 mya.
  • Potrero Grande Ignimbrite, 9.8–9 mya.
  • Potreros Ignimbrite, 6.6 mya.
  • Purico Ignimbrite, 1.3 mya.
  • Puripicar Ignimbrite, 4.2 mya.
  • Rachaite volcanic complex, 7.2–8.4 mya.
  • Rosada Ignimbrite, 6.3–8.1 mya.
  • Sifon Ignimbrite, 8.3 mya.
  • Tajamar/Chorrillos Ignimbrite, 10.5–10.1 mya.
  • Tamberia Ignimbrite, 10.7–9.5 mya.
  • Tara Ignimbrite, 3.6 mya.
  • Tatio Ignimbrite, 0.703 mya.
  • Toba 1 Ignimbrite, 7.6 mya.
  • Toconao pumice, 4.65 mya.
  • Vallecito Ignimbrite, 3.6 mya.
  • Verde Ignimbrite, 140 - 17.2 mya.
  • Vilama Ignimbrite, 8.4–8.5 mya.
  • Vizcayayoc Ignimbrite, 13 mya.