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Aeolic Greek

In linguistics, Aeolic Greek (), also known as Aeolian (), Lesbian or Lesbic dialect, is the set of dialects of Ancient Greek spoken mainly in Boeotia (a region in Central Greece); in Thessaly; in the Aegean island of Lesbos; and in the Greek colonies of Aeolis in Anatolia and adjoining islands.

The Aeolic dialect shows many archaisms in comparison to the other Ancient Greek dialects (Arcadocypriot, Attic, Ionic, and Doric varieties), as well as many innovations.

Aeolic Greek is widely known as the language of Sappho and of Alcaeus of Mytilene. Aeolic poetry, which is exemplified in the works of Sappho, mostly uses four classical meters known as the Aeolics: Glyconic (the most basic form of Aeolic line), hendecasyllabic verse, Sapphic stanza, and Alcaic stanza (the latter two are respectively named for Sappho and Alcaeus).

In Plato's Protagoras, Prodicus labelled the Aeolic dialect of Pittacus of Mytilene as "barbarian" (barbaros), because of its difference from the Attic literary style: "He didn't know to distinguish the words correctly, being from Lesbos, and having been raised with a barbarian dialect".

Phonology



Consonants



Labiovelars

Proto-Indo-European and Proto-Greek [[labialisation|*]] changed to Aeolic p everywhere. By contrast, PIE * changed to Attic/Ionic, Arcadocypriot, and Doric t before e and i.
  • PIE * → Lesbian písures, Boeotian péttares ~ Attic téttares, Ionic tésseres, Doric tétores "four" Similarly PIE/PGk * always became b and PIE * > PGk * always became ph (whereas in other dialects they became alternating b/d and ph/th before back/front vowels).

    Labiovelars were treated the same way in the P-Celtic languages and the Sabellic languages.

    Sonorant clusters



    A Proto-Greek consonant cluster with h (from Indo-European ) and a sonorant (r, l, n, m, w, y) changed to a double sonorant in Aeolic (rr, ll, nn, mm, ww, yy) by assimilation. In Attic/Ionic and Doric, the h assimilated to the vowel before the consonant cluster, causing the vowel to lengthen by compensatory lengthening. : PIE VsR or VRs → Attic/Ionic-Doric VVR. : VsR or VRs → Aeolic VRR.
  • PIE * → Proto-Greek *ehmi → Aeolic emmi ~ Attic/Ionic ēmi (= εἰμί) "I am"

    Loss of h

    Lesbian Aeolic lost in initial h- (psilosis "stripping") from Proto-Indo-European s- or y-. By contrast, Ionic sometimes retains it, and Attic always retains it.
  • PIE * → Proto-Greek *hāwelios → Lesbian āélios, Ionic ēélios ~ Attic hēlios "sun"

    Retention of w

    In Thessalian and Boeotian (sub-dialects of Aeolic) and Doric, the Proto-Indo-European and Proto-Greek semi-vowel w (digamma) was retained at the beginning of a word.
  • PIE → Boeotian, Doric wépos ~ Attic-Ionic épos "word", "epic" (compare Latin vōx "voice")

    Vowels



    Long a

    In Aeolic and Doric, Proto-Greek long ā remains. By contrast, in Attic, long ā changes to long ē in most cases; in Ionic, it changes everywhere.
  • PIE → Aeolic, Doric mātēr ~ Attic/Ionic mētēr "mother"

    Boeotian

    In Boeotian, the vowel-system was, in many cases, changed in a way reminiscent of the modern Greek pronunciation.
  • Attic/Ionic αι ~ Boeotian η ~ Modern Greek αι
  • Attic/Ionic ει ~ Boeotian ει ~ Modern Greek ει
  • Attic/Ionic οι ~ Boeotian υ ~ Mediaeval Greek and Old Athenaean οι ~ Modern Greek οι

    Accent

    In Lesbian Aeolic, the accent of all words is recessive (barytonesis), as is typical only in the verbs of other dialects.
  • Attic/Ionic potamós ~ Lesbian pótamos "river"

    Morphology

    Contracted or vowel-stem verbs that are thematic in Attic/Ionic are often athematic (-mi) in Aeolic.
  • Ionic philéō, Attic philô ~ Aeolic phílēmi "I love"

    Aeolic athematic infinitive active ends in -men or (Lesbian) -menai. ~ Attic/Ionic has -enai.
  • Lesbian émmen, émmenai; Thessalian, Boeotian eîmen ~ Attic/Ionic eînai (spurious diphthong) "to be" In the Lesbian dialect this ending also extends to the thematic conjugation, where Attic/Ionic has -ein. All three of these Aeolic endings occur in Homer.
  • Homeric agémen

    Proto-Greek -ans and -ons-ais and -ois (first- and second declension accusative plural). ~ Attic/Ionic -ās and -ōs (= -ους).

    Dative plural -aisi and -oisi. ~ Attic/Ionic -ais and -ois.

    The participle has ois and ais for Attic ōs (= ους), ās.

    Glossary



    Aeolian



  • ἀέλιος "sun" Doric also (Attic hēlios; Cretan abelios; Laconian bela; Pamphylian babelios) (PIE *sawel-)
  • ἄγωνος ágōnos "struggle" (Attic agōn; Elean dat. pl. agōnois for agōsi)
  • ἀθρήματα gifts sent by kin to Lesbian brides (Sappho fr.) (compare Homeric [http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/cgi-bin/ptext?doc=Perseus%3Atext%3A1999.04.0057%3Aentry%3D%2330693 hedna, eedna])
  • Αἰολίωνες Aiolíōnes "Aeolians" (Attic Αἰολεῖς Aioleîs) ( "speak Aeolic, compose in the Aeolian mode, trick out with false words" Sophocles Fr.912 ) ([http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/cgi-bin/ptext?doc=Perseus%3Atext%3A1999.04.0057%3Aentry%3D%232585 aioleō] vary, adorn, diversify ([http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/cgi-bin/ptext?doc=Perseus%3Atext%3A1999.04.0057%3Aentry%3D%232610 aiolos] quick-moving, glittering, shifty)
  • ἀκλάδες [http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/cgi-bin/ptext?doc=Perseus%3Atext%3A1999.04.0057%3Aentry%3D%233199 aklades] (unpruned vineyards) (Attic akladeutoi ampeloi)
  • ἀκόντιον akontion (part of troops) (Attic spear) (Macedonian rhachis, spine or backbone, anything ridged like the backbone)
  • ἀμένης -τος [http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/cgi-bin/ptext?doc=Perseus%3Atext%3A1999.04.0057%3Aentry%3D%235156 amenēs] -tos (Attic ὑμήν humēn) thin skin, membrane.
  • ἀμώνες [http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/cgi-bin/ptext?doc=Perseus%3Atext%3A1999.04.0057;query=entry%3D%236204;layout=;loc=a%29mwre%2Fa amōnes] (Attic ἀνεμώνες anemones
  • ἄορος [http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/cgi-bin/ptext?doc=Perseus%3Atext%3A1999.04.0057%3Aentry%3D%2311153 aoros] (Attic ἄϋπνος ahypnos, without sleep) Μηθυμναῖοι
  • ἄρπυς [http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/cgi-bin/ptext?doc=Perseus%3Atext%3A1999.04.0057%3Aentry%3D%2315443 arpys] (Attic ἔρως Eros, Love) attested in Crinagoras, ἁρπάζειν harpazein to snatch. Homeric [http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/cgi-bin/ptext?doc=Perseus%3Atext%3A1999.04.0057%3Aentry%3D%2315411 harpaleos] attractive,devouring
  • ἄσφε [http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/cgi-bin/ptext?doc=Perseus%3Atext%3A1999.04.0057%3Aentry%3D%2316888 asphe] to them (Attic [http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/cgi-bin/ptext?doc=Perseus%3Atext%3A1999.04.0072%3Aentry%3D%234599 sphe], sphi)
  • βακχόα [http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/cgi-bin/ptext?doc=Perseus%3Atext%3A1999.04.0057%3Aentry%3D%2319196 bakchoa] (Attic βόθρος bothros sacred dungeon, pit)
  • βάλλα [http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/cgi-bin/ptext?doc=Perseus%3Atext%3A1999.04.0057%3Aentry%3D%2319266 balla] threshold (Attic βῆλος bēlos) (Doric balos)
  • βελφιν [http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/cgi-bin/ptext?doc=Perseus%3Atext%3A1999.04.0057%3Aentry%3D%2319793 belphin] dolphin (Attic delphis) and Βέλφοι Belphoi Delphi
  • βᾶμα [http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/cgi-bin/ptext?doc=Perseus%3Atext%3A1999.04.0057%3Aentry%3D%2319842 bama] Doric also (Attic βῆμα bema walking, step)
  • βλῆρ [http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/cgi-bin/ptext?doc=Perseus%3Atext%3A1999.04.0057%3Aentry%3D%2320116 blēr] incitement (Attic [http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/cgi-bin/ptext?doc=Perseus%3Atext%3A1999.04.0057%3Aentry%3D%2323956 delear]) τὸ δὲ αὐτὸ καὶ αἶθμα. παρὰ Ἀλκαίῳ ἡ λέξις
  • βραδανίζω [http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/cgi-bin/ptext?doc=Perseus%3Atext%3A1999.04.0057%3Aentry%3D%2320765 bradanizō] brandish, shake off. (Cf.Elean bratana Common rhatane)
  • βραδινός [http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/cgi-bin/ptext?doc=Perseus%3Atext%3A1999.04.0057%3Aentry%3D%2320766 bradinos] slender, soft (Attic rhadinos) Sapph.90,104.
  • βράιδιον [http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/cgi-bin/ptext?doc=Perseus%3Atext%3A1999.04.0057%3Aentry%3D%2320767 braidion] (Attic ῥάιδιον rhaidion easy)
  • βράκειν [http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/cgi-bin/ptext?doc=Perseus%3Atext%3A1999.04.0057%3Aentry%3D%2320809 brakein] to understand (dysbrakanon imprehensible)
  • βράκος [http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/cgi-bin/ptext?doc=Perseus%3Atext%3A1999.04.0057%3Aentry%3D%2320814 brakos] long robe, Sapph.70 Homeric [http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/cgi-bin/ptext?doc=Perseus%3Atext%3A1999.04.0057%3Aentry%3D%2392134 ῥάκος] ϝράκος rhakos wrakos
  • βρίζα [http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/cgi-bin/ptext?doc=Perseus%3Atext%3A1999.04.0057%3Aentry%3D%2392407 briza] root (Attic rhiza)
  • βρόδον [http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/cgi-bin/ptext?doc=Perseus%3Atext%3A1999.04.0057%3Aentry%3D%2321014 brodon] (Attic ῥόδον rhodon, rose) and vagina metaphorically in Erotic Glossary.
  • βροδόπαχυς [http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/cgi-bin/ptext?doc=Perseus%3Atext%3A1999.04.0057%3Aentry%3D%2321015 brodopachus] with pink, rosy forearms (Attic rhodopuches) (βροδόπαχυν brodopachun Sappho) and [http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/cgi-bin/ptext?doc=Perseus%3Atext%3A1999.04.0057%3Aentry%3D%2321013 brododaktulos] with rosy fingers
  • βροχέως brocheos or βρουκέων broukeon (Attic βραχύ brachy short) (Sapph.fr. 2,7)
  • δράσειν drasein (Attic θύειν to sacrifice)
  • δνόφος [http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/cgi-bin/ptext?doc=Perseus%3Atext%3A1999.04.0057%3Aentry%3D%2327814 dnophos] darkness Ionic also (Attic ζόφος zophos) (akin to knephas)
  • εἴδη eide (Attic ὕλη, forest) (εἴδη Ionian also)
  • Ἐννησιάδες Ennesiades Lesbian Nymphs
  • ἐπιάλτης [http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/cgi-bin/ptext?doc=Perseus%3Atext%3A1999.04.0057%3Aentry%3D%2338868 epialtēs] and epialēs nightmare (Attic [http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/cgi-bin/ptext?doc=Perseus%3Atext%3A1999.04.0057%3Aentry%3D%2345762 ephialtēs]) (wiki Ephialtes)
  • ζάδηλον [http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/cgi-bin/ptext?doc=Perseus%3Atext%3A1999.04.0057%3Aentry%3D%2346064 zadelon] with holes in it, open (Attic diadelon obvious) (Alcaeus 30 D 148P)
  • ἴμβηρις [http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/cgi-bin/ptext?doc=Perseus%3Atext%3A1999.04.0057%3Aentry%3D%2350467 imbēris] eel (Attic ἔγχελυς enchelys) Μηθυμναῖοι
  • ἴρον [http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/cgi-bin/ptext?doc=Perseus%3Atext%3A1999.04.0057%3Aentry%3D%2350094 iron] holy (Attic ἱερόν hierón) (Doric hiarón) (Ionic hirón)
  • Ἰσσα Issa old name of Lesbos Island Cf. Antissa
  • ἴσσασθαι [http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/cgi-bin/ptext?doc=Perseus%3Atext%3A1999.04.0057%3Aentry%3D%2351231 issasthai] (Attic κληροῦσθαι klerousthai to take sth by lot)
  • καγκύλη [http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/cgi-bin/ptext?doc=Perseus%3Atext%3A1999.04.0057%3Aentry%3D%2351615 kankulē] (Attic κηκῖς kēkis wet,vapour, mordant dyeing)
  • κάμμαρψις [http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/cgi-bin/ptext?doc=Perseus%3Atext%3A1999.04.0057%3Aentry%3D%2352988 kammarpsis] dry Measure (Attic ἡμιμέδιμνον hemimedimnon, one half of a medimnos)
  • καραβίδες [http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/cgi-bin/ptext?doc=Perseus%3Atext%3A1999.04.0057%3Aentry%3D%2353252 karabides] (Attic γρᾶες [http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/cgi-bin/ptext?doc=Perseus%3Atext%3A1999.04.0057%3Aentry%3D%2322811 graes]) Μηθυμναῖοι
  • καυαλέον [http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/cgi-bin/ptext?doc=Perseus%3Atext%3A1999.04.0057%3Aentry%3D%2356195 kaualeon] Hsch (Attic αἶθος aithos fire, burning heat) (Cf.kaiō burn)
  • κλᾷδες [http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/cgi-bin/ptext?doc=Perseus%3Atext%3A1999.04.0057%3Aentry%3D%2357655 klaides] Doric also (Attic [http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/cgi-bin/ptext?doc=Perseus%3Atext%3A1999.04.0057%3Aentry%3D%2357772 kleides] bars, bolts, keys)
  • Mεσοστροφώνια Mesostrophonia'' Lesbian festival
  • μέσσυϊ messui (Attic ἐν μέσῳ in the middle)
  • μόλσος [http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/cgi-bin/ptext?doc=Perseus%3Atext%3A1999.04.0057%3Aentry%3D%2368368 molsos] (Attic δημός, fat)
  • ξέννος [http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/cgi-bin/ptext?doc=Perseus%3Atext%3A1999.04.0057%3Aentry%3D%2371545 xennos] foreigner, guest-friend, strange (Attic xenos) (Ionic xeinos)
  • ξίμβα [http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/cgi-bin/ptext?doc=Perseus%3Atext%3A1999.04.0057%3Aentry%3D%2371639 ximba] (Attic ῥοιά rhoia pomegranate-tree) (Boeotian [http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/cgi-bin/ptext?doc=Perseus%3Atext%3A1999.04.0057%3Aentry%3D%2393999 sida])
  • ὄθματα [http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/cgi-bin/ptext?doc=Perseus%3Atext%3A1999.04.0057%3Aentry%3D%2372159 othmata] (Attic ommata eyes)
  • ὄν [http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/cgi-bin/ptext?doc=Perseus%3Atext%3A1999.04.0057;query=entry%3D%236214;layout=;loc=a%29%2Fna1 ón]ὄνα óna (Attic ἀνά aná) upon,through,again (Arcadocypriot also)
  • πασσύριον [http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/cgi-bin/ptext?doc=Perseus%3Atext%3A1999.04.0057%3Aentry%3D%2379955 passyrion] (Attic passydia totally,all together,with the whole army)
  • πεδαμείβω [http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/cgi-bin/ptext?doc=Perseus%3Atext%3A1999.04.0057%3Aentry%3D%2380208 pedameivō] (Attic metameivo exchange) (πεδέχω pedecho μετέχω metecho), pedoikos metoikos [http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/cgi-bin/ptext?doc=Perseus%3Atext%3A1999.04.0057%3Aentry%3D%2380200 peda] for meta
  • πέμπε [http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/cgi-bin/ptext?doc=Perseus%3Atext%3A1999.04.0057%3Aentry%3D%2380545 pempe] five (Attic πέντε pente, Pamphylian πέδε pede ) ( πεμπάσσειν pempassein to count per five) (Attic pempe imp. of pempō send)
  • Πέῤῥαμος [http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/cgi-bin/ptext?doc=Perseus%3Atext%3A1999.04.0057%3Aentry%3D%2382655 Perrhamos] Priamus (Alcaeus 74D,111P (it means also king)
  • πέσδος [http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/cgi-bin/ptext?doc=Perseus%3Atext%3A1999.04.0057%3Aentry%3D%2382690 pésdos] pedestrian,infantry) (Attic πεζός pezós)
  • πέσσον [http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/cgi-bin/ptext?doc=Perseus%3Atext%3A1999.04.0057%3Aentry%3D%2382703 pesson] plain (Attic πεδίον pedion)
  • πέσσυρες [http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/cgi-bin/ptext?doc=Perseus%3Atext%3A1999.04.0057%3Aentry%3D%23103249 pessyres] four (Lesbian πίσυρες pisyres) (Boeotian πέτταρες pettares) (Attic τέσσαρες tessares) (Doric tetores)
  • σάωμι [http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/cgi-bin/ptext?doc=Perseus%3Atext%3A1999.04.0057%3Aentry%3D%23101971 saōmi] save (Attic σῴζω sōizō ) (Homeric σαόω saoō)
  • σίγλαι [http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/cgi-bin/ptext?doc=Perseus%3Atext%3A1999.04.0057%3Aentry%3D%2393981 siglai] ear-rings (Attic enōtia, Laconian exōbadia)
  • σκίφος [http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/cgi-bin/ptext?doc=Perseus%3Atext%3A1999.04.0057%3Aentry%3D%2371667 skiphos] Attic xiphos sword (skiptō, given as etym. of skiphos and xiphos, Sch.Il.1.220; cf. skipei: nussei, it pricks,pierces)
  • σπόλα [http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/cgi-bin/ptext?doc=Perseus%3Atext%3A1999.04.0057%3Aentry%3D%2396961 spóla](Attic στολή stolē) equipment, garment (spaleis, the sent one, for staleis)
  • στρότος [http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/cgi-bin/ptext?doc=Perseus%3Atext%3A1999.04.0057%3Aentry%3D%2397151 strótos] (Attic stratós) army
  • συρξ [http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/cgi-bin/ptext?doc=Perseus%3Atext%3A1999.04.0057%3Aentry%3D%2393389 syrx] (Attic σάρξ flesh) (dative plural σύρκεσιν syrkesi Attic σαρξίν sarxin)
  • τενεκοῦντι [http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/cgi-bin/ptext?doc=Perseus%3Atext%3A1999.04.0057%3Aentry%3D%23103073 tenekounti] (Attic enoikounti dative singular of ἐνοικῶν enoikōn inhabiting)
  • τράγαις [http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/cgi-bin/ptext?doc=Perseus%3Atext%3A1999.04.0057%3Aentry%3D%23104452 tragais] you break, grow rough and hoarse and smell like a goat
  • τῦδε [http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/cgi-bin/ptext?doc=Perseus%3Atext%3A1999.04.0057%3Aentry%3D%23105831 tude] tudai and [http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/cgi-bin/ptext?doc=Perseus%3Atext%3A1999.04.0057%3Aentry%3D%23105834 tuide] here) (Ionic tēde)
  • ὔσδος [http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/cgi-bin/ptext?doc=Perseus%3Atext%3A1999.04.0057%3Aentry%3D%2372144 usdos] (Attic ozos twig, branch)
  • φαυόφορος [http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/cgi-bin/ptext?doc=Perseus%3Atext%3A1999.04.0057%3Aentry%3D%23110461 phauophoros] priestess (Attic ἱέρεια hiereia) (light-keeper) (Aeolic [http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/cgi-bin/ptext?doc=Perseus%3Atext%3A1999.04.0057%3Aentry%3D%23110470 phauō] for Homeric phaō shine) (Homeric phaos light, Attic phōs and phōtophoros)
  • φηρία [http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/cgi-bin/ptext?doc=Perseus%3Atext%3A1999.04.0057%3Aentry%3D%23110650 phēria] (Attic θηρία thēria beasts)
  • Ψάπφω [http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/cgi-bin/ptext?doc=Perseus%3Atext%3A1999.04.0057%3Aentry%3D%2393281 Psapphō], (Attic Σαπφώ Sapphō)

    Boeotian

  • ἄας [http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/cgi-bin/ptext?doc=Perseus%3Atext%3A1999.04.0057%3Aentry%3D%2320 aas] ἀεστητόν aestēton tomorrow (Attic αὔριον aurion) (Cf.Attic ēōs dawn)
  • ἀμίλλακας [http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/cgi-bin/ptext?doc=Perseus%3Atext%3A1999.04.0057%3Aentry%3D%235276 amillakas] wine Theban (Attic oinos)
  • ἀνωδόρκας [http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/cgi-bin/ptext?doc=Perseus%3Atext%3A1999.04.0057;query=entry%3D%2310930;layout=;loc=a%29nwdi%2Fnw anōdorkas] a fish ''[http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/cgi-bin/ptext?doc=Perseus%3Atext%3A1999.04.0057%3Aentry%3D%2320968 βρίγκος] ὁ ἰχθῦς, ὑπὸ Θηβαίων
  • βαιδύμην [http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/cgi-bin/ptext?doc=Perseus%3Atext%3A1999.04.0057%3Aentry%3D%2319122 baidumēn] (Attic ἀροτριᾶν arotrian to plough)
  • βανά [http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/cgi-bin/ptext?doc=Perseus%3Atext%3A1999.04.0057%3Aentry%3D%2319305 bana] (βαλάρα [http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/cgi-bin/ptext?doc=Perseus%3Atext%3A1999.04.0057%3Aentry%3D%2319247 balara]) woman ( Attic gunē ) (βανῆκες, banēkes βάττικες [http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/cgi-bin/ptext?doc=Perseus%3Atext%3A1999.04.0057%3Aentry%3D%2319647 battikes] women ( Attic gunaikes )
  • βάστραξ [http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/cgi-bin/ptext?doc=Perseus%3Atext%3A1999.04.0057%3Aentry%3D%2319601 bastrax] or bastax (Attic τράχηλος trachēlos neck) pl.bastraches
  • βλεερεῖ [http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/cgi-bin/ptext?doc=Perseus%3Atext%3A1999.04.0057%3Aentry%3D%2320081 bleerei] (Attic οἰκτείρει he feels pity) Cf. eleairei
  • γάδου [http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/cgi-bin/ptext?doc=Perseus%3Atext%3A1999.04.0057%3Aentry%3D%2346713 gadou] (ϝάδου wadou) (Attic ἡδύ hēdú) (Corinna.17)
  • Δεύς [http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/cgi-bin/ptext?doc=Perseus%3Atext%3A1999.04.0057%3Aentry%3D%2324229 Deus] instead of Zeus. Attested also in Laconian and Rhodian.
  • ἐμπυρία [http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/cgi-bin/ptext?doc=Perseus%3Atext%3A1999.04.0057%3Aentry%3D%2334561 empyria] divination (Attic manteia) (Hsch. public oath, Koine ordeal by fire)
  • ζεκελτίδες [http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/cgi-bin/ptext?doc=Perseus%3Atext%3A1999.04.0057%3Aentry%3D%2346140 zekeltides] gourds Amerias zakeltides (Phrygian zelkia vegetables)
  • ἴδηφιν idephin sweet-voiced. Hsch.: ἴδηφιν ἴδαις· Βοιωτοί. [καὶ ὁ ἡδυλάλος διὰ τῆς διφθόγγου] (Attic [http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/cgi-bin/ptext?doc=Perseus%3Atext%3A1999.04.0057%3Aentry%3D%2346730 hēduphōnon]) ( Aeolic wad-, ad- )
  • ἰστάκη istake scythe (Attic δρέπανον drepanon)
  • ἰυγοδρομεῖν [http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/cgi-bin/ptext?doc=Perseus%3Atext%3A1999.04.0057%3Aentry%3D%2351417 iugodromein] (Attic ἐκβοηθεῖν, ekboēthein, and boēdromein, run to help) (Ἰύγγυϊ Dionysus, ἰυγή voice,scream (Soph. Phil. 752))([http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/cgi-bin/ptext?doc=Perseus%3Atext%3A1999.04.0057;layout=;query=entry%3D%2351416;loc=i%29uggodrome%2Fw Iungios] Thessalian month)
  • ἰώ and [http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/cgi-bin/ptext?doc=Perseus%3Atext%3A1999.04.0057;query=entry%3D%2330658;layout=;loc=e%29gw%2Fguos hiōn] (Attic ἐγώ egō, I) (hiōnga iōga for egōge)
  • Καραιός [http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/cgi-bin/ptext?doc=Perseus%3Atext%3A1999.04.0057%3Aentry%3D%2353262 Karaios] Boeotian epithet for Zeus meaning tall,head. Boeotian eponym Karaidas
  • κᾶρουξ karoux (Attic kēryx herald)
  • κριδδέμεν [http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/cgi-bin/ptext?doc=Perseus%3Atext%3A1999.04.0057%3Aentry%3D%2359942 kriddemen] (Attic γελᾶν gelan to laugh) (Strattis fr. 47) Cf. (Cf.Attic [http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/cgi-bin/ptext?doc=Perseus%3Atext%3A1999.04.0057%3Aentry%3D%2359944 krizō] creak,screech)
  • κόριλλα [http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/cgi-bin/ptext?doc=Perseus%3Atext%3A1999.04.0057%3Aentry%3D%2359114 korilla] little girl (Koine korasion from Attic korasis girl) (Aetolian korudion)
  • μηλάτας [http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/cgi-bin/ptext?doc=Perseus%3Atext%3A1999.04.0057%3Aentry%3D%2367373 mēlatas] (Attic ποιμήν poimen shepherd) (homeric μῆλον [http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/cgi-bin/ptext?doc=Perseus%3Atext%3A1999.04.0057%3Aentry%3D%2367423 mēlon] sheep) (Attic [http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/cgi-bin/ptext?doc=Perseus%3Atext%3A1999.04.0057%3Aentry%3D%2367424 mēlon] apple, Aeolic-Doric malon)
  • μνάριον [http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/cgi-bin/ptext?doc=Perseus%3Atext%3A1999.04.0057%3Aentry%3D%2368160 mnarion] (Attic κάλλυντρον [http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/cgi-bin/ptext?doc=Perseus%3Atext%3A1999.04.0057%3Aentry%3D%2352780 kallyntron] broom, brush)
  • ὀπισθοτίλα [http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/cgi-bin/ptext?doc=Perseus%3Atext%3A1999.04.0057%3Aentry%3D%2374502 opisthotila] (Attic σηπία sēpia cuttlefish) (Strattis. fr. 47,3) (squirts its liquor from behind)
  • ὀπίττομαι opittomai (homeric [http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/cgi-bin/ptext?doc=Perseus%3Atext%3A1999.04.0057%3Aentry%3D%2374448 opizomai] I care,respect) (Laconian opiddomai)
  • ὀφρυγνᾷ [http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/cgi-bin/ptext?doc=Perseus%3Atext%3A1999.04.0057%3Aentry%3D%2376173 ophrygnai] (Attic ὀφρυάζει[http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/cgi-bin/ptext?doc=Perseus%3Atext%3A1999.04.0057%3Aentry%3D%2376170 ophryazei] he winks raising the eyebrow,to be haughty)
  • σεῖα [http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/cgi-bin/ptext?doc=Perseus%3Atext%3A1999.04.0057%3Aentry%3D%2393543 seia] I persecuted (Attic ἐδίωξα edioxa) (Cf.Homeric [http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/cgi-bin/ptext?doc=Perseus%3Atext%3A1999.04.0057%3Aentry%3D%2393543 seuō] move quickly,chase)
  • συοβοιωτοί [http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/cgi-bin/ptext?doc=Perseus%3Atext%3A1999.04.0057%3Aentry%3D%23101197 syoboiōtoi] Hog-Boeotians (Cratinus.310)
  • τρίπεζα [http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/cgi-bin/ptext?doc=Perseus%3Atext%3A1999.04.0057%3Aentry%3D%23105122 tripeza] (Attic trapeza,table)(from [http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/cgi-bin/ptext?doc=Perseus%3Atext%3A1999.04.0057%3Aentry%3D%23103476 tetrapeza] four-footed) (tripeza three-footed) (in Aeolic it would-be tripesda)
  • ψώσματα [http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/cgi-bin/ptext?doc=Perseus%3Atext%3A1999.04.0057%3Aentry%3D%23116023 psōsmata] Boeotian word acc. Aristonymus

    Thessalian



  • ἀβρεμής [http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/cgi-bin/ptext?doc=Perseus%3Atext%3A1999.04.0057%3Aentry%3D%23160 abremēs] (Attic ἀβλεπής ablepēs ἀνάξιος του βλέπεσθαι unworthy seeing, despicable (Cypriotic also) (Hes. text ἀβλεπής Κύπριοι καὶ Θετταλοί
  • ἀγορά [http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/cgi-bin/ptext?doc=Perseus%3Atext%3A1999.04.0057%3Aentry%3D%23762 agora] (Attic λιμήν limen port, harbour) (Hes. text Θετταλοὶ δὲ καὶ τὸν λιμένα ἀγορὰν καλοῦσιν Κρῆτες δὲ τὴν ἐκκλησίαν
  • ἀλφινία [http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/cgi-bin/ptext?doc=Perseus%3Atext%3A1999.04.0057%3Aentry%3D%234767 alphinia] white poplar (PIE *albho- 'white') (Attic leukē, PIE *leuk- 'bright,light') (Macedonian aliza)
  • Ἄπλουν [http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/cgi-bin/ptext?doc=Perseus%3Atext%3A1999.04.0057%3Aentry%3D%2312220 Aploun] Apollo (Attic Ἀπόλλων Apollōn) (Doric, Pamphylian Ἀπέλο̄ν Apelon)
  • ἀσπάλεια aspaleia safeness (Attic asphaleia)
  • ἀστραλός [http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/cgi-bin/ptext?doc=Perseus%3Atext%3A1999.04.0057%3Aentry%3D%2316597 astralos] (Attic ψάρ -ος psar Starling)
  • βεβυκῶσθαι [http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/cgi-bin/ptext?doc=Perseus%3Atext%3A1999.04.0057%3Aentry%3D%2319747 bebukousthai] to be swollen (Homeric βυκτάων buktaon blowing)
  • βουσία [http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/cgi-bin/ptext?doc=Perseus%3Atext%3A1999.04.0057%3Aentry%3D%2320678 bousia] (Attic γογγυλίδι gongylidi turnip)
  • δάμοσσος dámossos public (Attic dēmósios) opp. ἰδδιούστικος iddioûstikos privative (Attic idiōtikós)
  • δάρατος [http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/cgi-bin/ptext?doc=Perseus%3Atext%3A1999.04.0057%3Aentry%3D%2323463 daratos] Thessalian bread (Macedonian dramis) (Athamanian dramix) (PIE *der- cut,split)
  • δέσποινα [http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/cgi-bin/ptext?doc=Perseus%3Atext%3A1999.04.0057%3Aentry%3D%2324194 despoina] woman (Attic gunē, Doric guna) (fem. of despotes)
  • ἔνορμος [http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/cgi-bin/ptext?doc=Perseus%3Atext%3A1999.04.0057%3Aentry%3D%2335974 enormos] (agora, assembly, market and chōra) (Attic [http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/cgi-bin/ptext?doc=Perseus%3Atext%3A1999.04.0057%3Aentry%3D%2335969 enormeō] get in a harbour, [http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/cgi-bin/ptext?doc=Perseus%3Atext%3A1999.04.0057%3Aentry%3D%2375183 hormos] bay,anchorage
  • ἐρέας ereas children (Hsch.Attic τέκνα tekna) (Homeric [http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/cgi-bin/ptext?doc=Perseus%3Atext%3A1999.04.0057%3Aentry%3D%2342641 ernos] young sprout,scion) (Neo-Phrygian eiroi children)
  • θεανῶσται [http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/cgi-bin/ptext?doc=Perseus%3Atext%3A1999.04.0057%3Aentry%3D%2347964 theanoustai] (Attic ξυστῆρες xysters)
  • ἰθείη [http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/cgi-bin/ptext?doc=Perseus%3Atext%3A1999.04.0057%3Aentry%3D%2350180 itheiē] (Attic ἁμαξιτός hamaxitos chariot-road) (Homeric ἰθεῖα ὀρθή Ψ 580) (Attic ithys,eytheia straight line)
  • ἴμψας impsas past participle of impto (Attic ζεύξας zeuxas zeugnymi join together)(Ἴμψιος Impsios Ποσειδῶν ὁ ζύγιος Poseidon Zygius on horses)
  • κάλαφος [http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/cgi-bin/ptext?doc=Perseus%3Atext%3A1999.04.0057%3Aentry%3D%2352563 kalaphos] (Attic ἀσκάλαφος, Ascalaphus a bird (Magnesian)
  • καπάνη [http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/cgi-bin/ptext?doc=Perseus%3Atext%3A1999.04.0057%3Aentry%3D%2353140 kapanē] chariot (Attic ἀπήνη apēnē) also, a helmet([http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/cgi-bin/ptext?doc=Perseus%3Atext%3A1999.04.0057%3Aentry%3D%2353142 kapanikos] plenteous
  • κίς [http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/cgi-bin/ptext?doc=Perseus%3Atext%3A1999.04.0057%3Aentry%3D%23104052 kis] who, anyone (Attic tis) (Laconian tir) (Arcadocypriot sis)
  • καρπαία [http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/cgi-bin/ptext?doc=Perseus%3Atext%3A1999.04.0057%3Aentry%3D%2353399 karpaia] Thessalo-Macedonian mimic military dance (see also Carpaea) Homeric [http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/cgi-bin/ptext?doc=Perseus%3Atext%3A1999.04.0057%3Aentry%3D%2353400 karpalimos] swift (for foot) eager,ravenous.
  • κῦῤῥος [http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/cgi-bin/ptext?doc=Perseus%3Atext%3A1999.04.0057%3Aentry%3D%2361057 kyrrhos] or kyrros sir,master (Attic kyrios)
  • Μακετοὺν Maketoun 'Macedonian man' (Attic Μακεδών Makedōn) (Thessalian -ουν-oun suffix for Attic ων ōn in both nominative and genitive of participles,pronouns and nouns.
  • ματτύη [http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/cgi-bin/ptext?doc=Perseus%3Atext%3A1999.04.0057%3Aentry%3D%2365254 mattuē] a meat-dessert of Macedonian or Thessalian origin (Athenaeus)(Macedonian mattuēs a kind of bird)
  • νεαλεῖς nealeis new-comers, newly caught ones (Cf.[http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/cgi-bin/ptext?doc=Perseus%3Atext%3A1999.04.0057%3Aentry%3D%2369939 nealeis],[http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/cgi-bin/ptext?doc=Perseus%3Atext%3A1999.04.0058%3Aentry%3D%2321962 neēludes])
  • νεβεύω nebeuō pray (Macedonian neuō) (Attic euchomai, neuō wink)
  • ὀνάλα onala, ὀνάλουμα onalouma (Attic [http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/cgi-bin/ptext?doc=Perseus%3Atext%3A1999.04.0057%3Aentry%3D%236953 analōma] expense cost) ( on- in the place of Attic prefix ana-, ongrapsantas SEG 27:202
  • Πέτθαλος [http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/cgi-bin/ptext?doc=Perseus%3Atext%3A1999.04.0057%3Aentry%3D%2348552 Pétthalos] and Πεθθάλειος (Boeotian Φέτταλος Phéttalos) (Attic Θετταλός Thettalós) (Ionic, Koine Θεσσαλός Thessalós) 'Thesalian man' (Πετθαλια Petthalia Thessalia) (Petthaloi Thessalians) (Koine thessalisti the thessalian way) ( Attic ἐντεθετταλίζομαι [http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/cgi-bin/ptext?doc=Perseus%3Atext%3A1999.04.0057%3Aentry%3D%2335587 entethettalizomai] become a Thessalian, i.e. wear the large Thessalian cloak ( Thettalika ptera ''feathers' ), Eupolis.201. )
  • ταγεύω [http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/cgi-bin/ptext?doc=Perseus%3Atext%3A1999.04.0057%3Aentry%3D%23102153 tageuō] to be tagos archon in Thessaly ταγευόντουν τοῦμ Πετθαλοῦν