Year 1234 (MCCXXXIV) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.


By area


  • The Manden region rises against the Kaniaga Kingdom. This is the beginning of a process that will lead to the rise of the Mali Empire.


  • February 9Mongol conquest of the Jin dynasty: Siege of Caizhou - Song Dynasty Chinese and Mongolian armies occupy the Jurchen capital at Caizhou, and Emperor Aizong of Jin commits suicide, marking the collapse of the Jin Dynasty.


  • Upon the death of Knut Långe, the deposed Erik Eriksson returns as king of Sweden, possibly after a small war between the two of them. It is also possible that Knut dies of natural causes, and Erik peacefully then returns as king.
  • Pope Gregory IX calls for a crusade against Bosnia, and replaces the Bogumil Bosnian Bishop with a Catholic Dominican German, Johann.
  • King Andrew II of Hungary proclaims herzeg Coloman as Ban of Bosnia, who passes it on to Prijezda, a cousin of Ban Matej Ninoslav (1234 to 1239), despite Matej being the legitimate Ban of Bosnia.
  • Sancho II of Portugal conquers the cities of Aljustrel and Mértola from the Muslims.

    By topic

  • Saint Dominic is canonized.
  • Pope Gregory IX releases the Nova Compilatio Decretalium or Decretales Gregorii IX.


  • Abaqa Khan, Mongol emperor of Persia (d. 1282)
  • Ippen, Japanese monk (d. 1289)


  • April 16Richard Marshal, 3rd Earl of Pembroke (b. 1191)
  • May 7Otto I, Duke of Merania (b. c. 1180)
  • June 18Emperor Chūkyō of Japan (b. 1218)
  • August 7Hugh Foliot, bishop of Hereford (b.c. 1155)
  • August 31Emperor Go-Horikawa of Japan (b. 1212)
  • December – Inga of Varteig, Norwegian royal mistress (b. c. 1185)
  • date unknown
  • Alan, Lord of Galloway
  • Knut Långe, usurper to the Swedish throne since 1229